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Anxiety and Depression

Mereno et al (2013) Presence of Anxiety and Depression in Patients With Bronchiectasis Unrelated to Cystic Fibrosis Archivos de Bronconeumología (English Edition) Volume 49, Issue 10, October 2013, Pages 415–420

Olveira C et al (2013) Depression and anxiety symptoms in bronchiectasis: associations with health-related quality of life Qual Life Res. 2013 Apr;22(3):597-605. doi: 10.1007/s11136-012-0188-5. Epub 2012 Apr 29.

Quittner et al (2016) International Committee on Mental Health in Cystic Fibrosis: Cystic Fibrosis Foundation and European Cystic Fibrosis Society consensus statements for screening and treating depression and anxiety Thorax doi:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2015-207488

Inhalation Therapy

Boe J, Dennis JH, O’Driscoll BR et al European Respiratory Society Guidelines on the use of nebulizers. Eur Respir J. 2001 Jul;18(1):228-42.

Daviskas E, Anderson SD, Young IH (2012). Effect of mannitol and repetitive coughing on the sputum properties in bronchiectasis. Resp Med 104(3):371-7.

Daviskas E, Anderson SD,Jaques A, Charlton B (2010). Inhaled mannitol improves the hydration & surface properties of sputum in patients with CF. Chest 137: 861-868.

Daviskas E, Anderson SD, Eberl S, Young IH (2008). Effect of increasing doses of mannitol on mucus clearance in patients with bronchiectasis. Euro Resp J 31:765-772.

Daviskas E, Anderson SD, Ebert S, Chan HK,Young IH (2001). The 24-h effect of mannitol on the clearance of mucus in patients with bronchiectasis. Chest 119(2):414-21.

Dolovich MA (2000). Influence of inspiratory flow rate, particle size, and airway calibre on aerosolized drug delivery to the lung. Respir Care  Jun; 45(6): 597-608.

Dolovich MB, Ahrens RC, Hess DR, et al (2005). Device selection and outcomes of aerosol therapy: evidence-based guidelines: American College of Chest Physicians/American College of Asthma, Allergy, and Immunology. Chest 127(1):335–371

Dolovich MB, Fink JB (2001). Aerosols and Devices. Respir Care Clin N Am Jun; 7(2): 131-173.

Dolovich MB, Dhand R (2011). Aerosol drug delivery: developments in device design and clinical use. The Lancet 377(9770):1032–1045

Elkins MR, Robinson M, Rose BR, et al (2006) A controlled trial of long-term inhaled hypertonic saline in patients with cystic fibrosis N Engl J Med ;354:229-240.

European Respiratory Society Nebulizer Guidelines: Clinical Aspects (2000). Eur Respir Rev Vol 10, No. 76.

European Respiratory Society Nebulizer Guidelines: Technical Aspects (2000). Eur Respir Rev Vol 10, No. 72.

Everard ML (2006). Aerosol therapy: regimen and device compliance in daily practice. Paediatr Respir Rev 7 Suppl 1: S80-82.

Everard ML (2003).Inhalation therapy in infants. Adv Drug Deliv Rev Jul 18; 55(7): 869-878.

Hart A et al (2014) Inhaled hyperosmolar agents for bronchiectasis Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 May 12;(5):CD002996. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD002996.pub3.

Jaques A, Daviskas E, Turton JA et al (2008). Inhaled mannitol improves lung function in cystic fibrosis. Chest 133:1388-1396.

Lange CF, Finlay WH (2006). Liquid atomizing: nebulizing and other methods of producing aerosols. J Aerosol Med  19(1): 28-35.

Lavorini F, Corrigan CJ, Barnes PJ, et al (2011). Retail sales of inhalation devices in European countries: so much for a global policy. Resp Med 105(7):1099–1103

Lavorini F, Fontana GA (2009). Targeting drugs to the airways: the role of spacer devices. Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery 6(1):91–102

Laube BL, Geller DE, Lin TC, Dalby RN, Diener-West M, Zeitlin PL (2005). Positive expiratory pressure changes aerosol distribution in patients with CF. Respir Care 50:1438-1444.

Laube BL, Janssens HM, De Jongh FHC, et al (2011) What the pulmonary specialist should know about the new inhalation therapies. Europ Resp J 37(6):1308–1331

Kellett F, Robert NM (2011) Nebulised 7% hypertonic saline improves lung function and quality of life in bronchiectasis. Respir Med 105:(12):1831-1835

Newman SP (2004). Spacer devices for metered dose inhalers. Clinical Pharmacokinetics 43(6):349–360

Nicolson C, Stirling R, Borg B, Button BM, Wilson JW, Holland AE (2012). The long term effect of inhaled hypertonic saline 6% in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Respir Med May;106(5):661-7

Riedler J, Reade T, Button B, Robertson CF (1996) Inhaled hypertonic saline increases sputum expectoration in cystic fibrosis. J Paediatr Child Health  32:48-50.

Schüepp KG, Straub D, Möller A, Wildhaber JH (2004) Deposition of aerosols in infants and children J Aerosol Med  Summer; 17(2): 153-156.

Williams R et al (1996). Relationship between humidity and temperature of inspired gas and the function of the airway mucosa. Crit Care Med Vol 24, 11:1920-28

Lung anatomy and physiology

Button BM & Button B (2013). Structure and Function of the Mucus Clearance System of the Lung. In Cystic Fibrosis: A Trilogy of Biochemistry, Physiology, and Therapy. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 

Cole PJ (1986) Inflammation: a two-edged sword-the model of bronchiectasis. European Journal of Respiratory Disease147: 6-15.

Evans SA, Turner SM, Bosch BJ, Hardy CC and Woodhead MA (1996) Lung function in bronchiectasis: the influence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. European Respiratory Journal 9: 1601-1604.

Fahy J, Schuster A, Ueki I, Boushey HA and Nadel JA (1992) Mucus hypersecretion in bronchiectasis: The role of neutrophil proteases. American Review of Respiratory Disease 146(6): 1430-1433.

Gaga M, Bentley AM, Humbert M, Barkans J, O’Brien F, Wathens CG, Kay AB and Durham SR (1998) Increases in CD4+ T lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils and interleukin 8 positive cells in the airways of patients with bronchiectasis. Thorax 53(8): 685-691.

Ho PL, Chan KN, Ip MSM, Lam WK, Ho CS, Yuen KY and Tsang KW (1998) The effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection on clinical parameters in steady-state bronchiectasis. Chest 114: 1594-1598.

King P (2009). The Pathophysiology of Bronchiectasis Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 4:411-419

Lapin CD (2002). Airway physiology, Autogenic Drainage and ACBT. Respir Care 27(7):778-785.

Mead J, Takishima T, Leith D (1970)Stress distribution in lungs: a model of pulmonary elasticity. Journal of Applied Physiology 28: 596–608.

Menkes HA, Traystman RJ (1977). Collateral Ventilation. American Review of Respiratory Disease 116; 287 – 309.

Tsang KW, Chan K, Ho P, Zheng L, Ooi GC, Ho JC and Lam WK (2000) Sputum elastase in steady-state bronchiectasis. Chest 117: 420-426.

Wilson CB, Jones PW, O’Leary CJ, Hansell DM, Cole PJ and Wilson R (1997) Effect of sputum bacteriology on the quality of life of patients with bronchiectasis. European Respiratory Journal 10: 1754-1760.

Lung Function

ATS/ERS Recommendations for Standardized Procedures for the Online and Offline Measurement of Exhaled Lower Respiratory Nitric Oxide and Nasal Nitric Oxide, 2005. 2005, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Vol. 171, pp. 912-930.

ATS/ERS task force: Standardisation of Lung Function tests. Interpretative strategies for lung function tests. R. Pellegrino, G. Viegi, V. Brusasco, R.O. Crapo, F. Burgos et al. 5, 2005, European Respiratory Journal, Vol. 26, pp. 948-68.

ATS/ERS Task Force: Standardisation of lung function testing. Standardisation of the measurement of lung volumes. J. Wanger, J.L. Clausen, A. Coates, O.F. Pedersen, V. Brusasco, F. Burgos et al. 2005, European Respiratory Journal, Vol. 26, pp. 511-522.

ATS/ERS TASK FORCE: STANDARDISATION OF LUNG FUNCTION TESTING. Standardisation of the single-breath determination of carbon monoxide uptake in the lung. N. MacIntyre, R.O. Crapo, G. Viegi, D.C. Johnson, C.P.M. van der Grinten, V. Brusasco, F. Burgos et al. 2005, European Respiratory Journal, Vol. 26, pp. 720-735.

Borg BM, Thompson BR, O’Hehir RE (2014). Interpreting Lung Function Tests: A Step-by-Step Guide. Chichester : Wiley Blackwell 978-1-118-40551-2.

Brian L. Graham, Vito Brusasco, Felip Burgos, Brendan G. Cooper, Robert Jensen, Adrian Kendrick, Neil R. MacIntyre, Bruce R. Thompson, Jack Wanger (2017) ERS/ATS standards for single-breath carbon monoxide uptake in the lung. European Respiratory Journal Jan 2017, 49 (1) 1600016; DOI: 10.1183/13993003.00016-2016

Guideline for non-CF bronchiectasis (2010). M C Pasteur, D Bilton, A T Hill Thorax Vol. 65, pp. i1-i58.

Iyer VN, Schroeder DR, Parker KO, Hyatt RE, Scanlon PD (2009) The nonspecific pulmonary function test: longitudinal follow-up and outcomes. Chest, Vol. 135, pp. 419-24.

M Boon, I Meyts, M Proesmans, FL Vermeulen, M Jorissen, K De Boeck (2014) Diagnostic accuracy of nitric oxide measurements to detect primary ciliary dyskinesia. European Journal of Clinical Investigation, Vol. 44, pp. 477–485.

Multi-ethnic reference values for spirometry for the 3-95-yr age range: the global lung function 2012 equations. Quanjer PH, Stanojevic S, Cole TJ, Baur X, Hall GL, Culver BH, Enright PL, Hankinson JL, Ip MS, Zheng J, Stocks J and Initiative, ERS Global Lung Function. 6, Dec 2012, European Respiratory Journal, Vol. 40, pp. 1324-43.

Nicolson C, Stirling R, Borg B, Button BM, Wilson JW, Holland AE (2012). The long term effect of inhaled hypertonic saline 6% in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Respir Med May;106(5):661-7

Sanja Stanojevic, Brian Graham, Brendan Cooper, Bruce Thompson, Kim Carter, Graham Hall (2016) Global lung function initiative: Reference equations for the transfer factor for carbon monoxide (TLCO) European Respiratory Journal Sep 2016, 48 (suppl 60) OA283; DOI: 10.1183/13993003.congress-2016.OA283

Lung Transplantation

Button BM, Roberts S, Kotsimbos T, Levvey B, Williams T, Bailey M, Snell G, Wilson JW (2005). Gastroesophageal reflux (symptomatic and silent): a potentially significant problem in patients with cystic fibrosis before and after lung transplantation. Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation 24:10:1522-29.

Burton PR, Button B, Brown W, Lee M, Roberst S, Hassen S, Bailey M, Smith A, Snell G (2009). Medium-term outcome of fundoplication after lung transplantation. Diseases of the Esophagus 22: 642-648

Davis RD, Lau CI, Eubanks S et al (2003). Improved lung allograft function following fundoplication in lung transplant patients with gastroesophageal disease undergoing lung transplantation. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 125:533-542.

Munro, P K Hayes, P Aurora Thoracic Organ Transplantation in Pryor & Prasad. Physiotherapy for cardiac and respiratory problems 4th edn Churchill Livingstone.

Munro Prue, Button Brenda et al (2008) Should lung transplant recipients routinely perform airway clearance techniques. A randomized trial. Respirology 13(7): 1053-60.

Munro PE, Holland AE, Bailey M, Button BM, Snell GI (2009). Pulmonary rehabilitation following lung transplantation. Transplant Proc Jan-Feb;41(1):292-5.

Orens JB, Estenne M, Arcasoy S et al (2006) Pulmonary Scientific Council of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. International guidelines for the selection of lung transplant candidates:  A consensus report from the Pulmonary Scientific Council of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant. Jul;25(7):745-55.

Rademacher, J et al (2016) Lung transplantation for non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Respiratory Medicine, Volume 115 , 60 – 65.

Reid KL, McKenzie FN, Menkis AH, Novick RJ, Pflugfelder PW, Kostuk WJ, Ahmad D (1990). Importance of chronic aspiration in recipients of heart-lung transplants. Lancet  336: 206-208.

Outcome Measures

American Thoracic Society (2002) ATS Statement: Guidelines for the six-minute walk test. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 166:111-117

Barr JT, Schumacher GE, Freeman S, LeMoine M, Bakst AW, Jones PW (2000). American translation, modification, and validation of the St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire. Clin Ther. Sep, 22(9):1121-45.

Behan L, Leigh MW, Dell SD, Dunn Galvin A, Quittner AL, Lucas JS (2017) Validation of a health-related quality of life instrument for primary ciliary dyskinesia (QOL-PCD). Thorax; 72(9): 832-839.

Birring SS et al (2003) Development of a symptom specific health status measure for patients with chronic cough: Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) Thorax 58:339-343 doi:10.1136/thorax.58.4.339

Dell SD, Leigh MW, Lucas JS, Ferkol TW, Knowles MR, Alpern A, et al. (2016) Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia: First Health-related quality of life measures for pediatric patients. Ann Am Thorac Soc; 13(10): 1726-1735.

Freeman S, LeMoine M, Bakst AW, Jones PW (2000). American translation, modification, and validation of the St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire. Clin Ther Sep, 22(9):1121-45.

Hsu KY, Lin JR, Lin MS, Chen W, Chen YJ, Yan YH (2013). The modified Medical Research Council dyspnoea scale is a good indicator of health-related quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Singapore Med J. Jun;54(6):321-7

Jones PW, Quirk FH, Baveystock CM (1991). The St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire. Resp Med 85 (suppl B):2531.

Jones PW (2005). St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire: MCID. COPD Mar 2(1):75e9.

Jones PW, Quirk FH, Baveystock CM, Littlejohns P (1992). A self-complete measure of health status for chronic airflow limitation. Am Rev Respir Dis 145;1321-1327.

Lucas J, Behan L, Galvin AD et al (2015) A quality of life measure for adults with primary ciliary dyskinesia (QOL-PCD). Eur Respir J 46(2):375-83.

Murray, J. L. Pentland, K. Turnbull, S et al (2009) Sputum colour: a useful clinical tool in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis.DOI: 10.1183/09031936.00163208 Published 1 August 2009

Murray MP, Turnbull K, MacQuarrie S, Pentland JL, Hill AT (2009).Validation of the Leicester Cough Questionnaire in noncysticfibrosis bronchiectasis. Eur Respir J Jul 34(1):125-31.

Quittner AL et al (2015). Quality of Life Questionnaire – Bronchiectasis: final psychometric analyses and determination of minimal impirtant difference scores. Thorax 70(1):12-20.doi:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2014-205918.Epub2014Oct16

Quittner AL et al (2014) A preliminary quality of life questionnaire-bronchiectasis: a patient-reported outcome measure for bronchiectasis. Chest Aug;146(2):437-48. doi: 10.1378/chest.13-1891.

Raj AA, Pavord DI, Birring SS (2009). Clinical cough IV: what is the minimal important difference for the Leicester Cough Questionnaire?Handb Exp Pharmacol 187:311e20.

Spinou A et al (2015). The validity of health-related quality of life questionnaires in bronchiectasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Thorax doi:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2015-207315

Spinou A et al (2017) The Objective Assessment of Cough Frequency in Bronchiectasis. Lung:Oct;195(5):575-585. doi: 10.1007/s00408-017-0038-x. Epub 2017 Jul 13.

Spinou A et al (2017) The development and validation of the Bronchiectasis Health Questionnaire. Eur Respir J. May 11;49(5). pii: 1601532. doi: 10.1183/13993003.01532-2016

Vodanovich DA, Bicknell TJ, Holland AE, Hill CJ, Cecins N, Jenkins S, McDonald CF, Burge AT, Thompson P, Stirling RG, Lee AL (2015) Validity and reliability of the chronic respiratory disease questionnaire in elderly individuals with mild to moderate non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Respiration; 90(2): 89-96.

Williams JE, Singh S, Sewell L, Guyatt G, Morgan MD. (2001) Development of a self-reported chronic respiratory questionnaire (CRQ-SR).Thorax 56:954–959

Wijkstra PJ, Tenvergert EM, VanAltena R, Otten V, Postma D, Kraan J, et al (1994). Reliability and validity of the chronic respiratory questionnaire (CRQ). Thorax 49:465-467

Wilson CB, Jones PW, O’Leary CJ, Cole PJ, Wilson R (1997). Validation of the St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire in bronchiectasis.Am J Respir Crit Care Med 156(2 Pt 1):536e41.


Bonavita J, Naidich D (2012). Imaging of bronchiectasis. Clin Chest Med 33 ,233-248

Hill LE, Ritchie G, Wightman AJ, Hill AT, Murchison JT (2010). Comparison between conventional interrupted high-resolution CT and volume multidetector CT acquisition in the assessment of bronchiectasis. Br J Radiol 83:67-70.

Javidan-Nejad C, Bhalla S (2009) Bronchiectasis. Radiol Clin North Am Mar;47(2):289-306

Matsuoka S, Uchiyama K, Shima H, Ueno N, Oish S, Nojiri Y (2003). Bronchoarterial ratio and bronchial wall thickness on high-resolution CT in asymptomatic subjects: correlation with age and smoking. Am J Roentgenol 180:513-518.

Muller, Fraser, Colman, Pare. W.B (2001). Radiologic diagnosis of diseases of the chest. Saunders Company.


Gao Y et al (2014)Sleep disturbances and health related quality of life in adults with steady-state bronchiectasis. 2014 Jul 18;9(7):e102970. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102970. eCollection


Ahmedzai et al (2011). Managing passengers with stable respiratory disease planning air travel: British Thoracic Society recommendations. British Thoracic Society Air Travel Working Group. Thorax. Sept :Vol 66; Supp

Hamada K et all (2002). Effects of hydration on fluid balance and lower extremity blood viscosity during long airplane flights. JAMA 287:844-5

Winfried Möller, Karl Häußinger, Löms Ziegler-Heitbrock, Joachim Heyder (2006) .Mucociliary and long-term particle clearance in airways of patients with immotile cilia. Respiratory Research 7:10  doi:10.1186/1465-9921-7-10