Gale N, Bolton CE, et al (2012) Systemic comorbidities in bronchiectasis. Chron Respir Dis; 9(4): 231-238.

McDonnell M, Aliberti S, et al.(2016) Comorbidities and the risk of mortality in patients with bronchiectasis: an international cohort study. Lancet Respir Med 4(12): 969-979.

Gastro-oesophageal reflux

Belafsky PC, Postma GN, Koufman JA (2002) Validity and reliability of the reflux symptom index (RSI). J Voice. 2002, 16(2):274-7.

Bendig DW, Seilheimer DK, Wagner ML, Ferry GD, Harrison GM (1982). Complications of gastroesophageal reflux in patients with cystic fibrosis. J Pediatr  100: 536-540.

Button BM, Heine RG, Catto-Smith A, Phelan PD, Olinsky A (1997). Postural drainage and gastro-oesophageal reflux in infants with cystic fibrosis. Arch Dis Child  76: 148-150.

Button BM, Heine RG, Catto-Smith AG, Olinsky A, Phelan PD, Ditchfield MR (2003) Chest physiotherapy in infants with cystic fibrosis: to tip or not? A five-year study. Paediatr Pulm 35:208-213.

Carlsson R, Dent J, Bolling-Sternevald E, Johnsson F, Junghard O, Lauritsen K, Riley S, Lundell L (1998). The usefulness of a structured questionnaire in the assessment of symptomatic gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Scan J Gastroenterol 33 (10): 1023-1029.

DeMeester TR, Wernly JA, Little AG, Bermudez G, Skinner DB, Wang C-I, Pellegrini CA, Klementschitsch, Johnson LF (1980). Technique, indications, and clinical use of 24 hour esophageal pH monitoring. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 79: 656-670.

DeMeester TR (1989). Prolonged oesophageal pH monitoring. In Gastrointestinal motility: which test? NW Read (Ed). Wrightson Biomedincal Publishing Ltd.

Dobhan R and Castell Donald (1993). Normal and abnormal proximal esophageal acid exposure: results of ambulatory dual-probe pH monitoring. Am J Gastroenterol Vol. 88;1:25-29

Dore M, Maragkoudakis E, Fraley K et al (2008). Diet, lifestyle and gender in gastro-esophageal reflux disease. Dig Dis Sci 53 (8):2-17-2032

Doumit M et al (2012). Acid and non-acid reflux during physiotherapy in young children with cystic fibrosis. Pediatr Pulm 47:119-124.

Howard PJ, Maher L, Pryde A, Heading RC (1991). Symptomatic gastro-oesophageal reflux, abnormal oesophageal acid exposure, and mucosal acid sensitivity are three separate, though related, aspects of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Gut 32: 128-132.

Ing AJ, Ngu MC, Breslin AB (1994). Pathogenesis of chronic persistent cough associated with gastroesophageal reflux. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 149:160-167.

Katz PO, Gerson LB, Vela MF (2013). Corrigendum: guidelines for the diagnosis and management of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Am J Gastroenterol:108;308-328

Lee AL, Button BM, Denehy L, Roberts SJ, Bamford TL, Ellis SJ, Mu FT, Heine RG, Stirling RG, Wilson JW (2014). Proximal and distal gastro-oesophageal reflux in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis. Respirology 19: 211-217.

Lee AL, Denehy L, Wilson JW, Stirling RG, Heine RG, Button BM (2015). Upright positive expiratory pressure therapy and exercise: effects on gastroesophageal reflux in COPD and bronchiectasis. Resp Care 57(9):1460-7.

Lee AL, Button BM, Denehy L, Wilson JW(2011). Gastro-oesophageal in noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Pulm Med, Volume 2011, Article ID 395020, 6 pages, doi:10.1155/2011/395020.

Ledson MJ, Tran J, Walshaw MJ (1998). Prevalence and mechanisms of gastro-oesophageal reflux in adult cystic fibrosis patients. J Royal Soc Med 91: 7-9.

Ledson MJ, Wilson GE, Tran J, Walshaw MJ (1998). Tracheal microaspiration in adult cystic fibrosis. J Royal Soc Med 91: 10-12.

Locke GR, Talley NJ, Weaver AM, Zinsmeister AR (1994) A new questionnaire for gastroesophageal reflux disease. Mayo Clinic Proceedings; 69(6): 539-547.

Malfroot A, Dab I (1991).  New insights on gastro-oesophageal reflux in cystic fibrosis by longitudinal follow up. Arch Dis Child  66: 1339-1345.

Morice AH, Farugi S, Wright CE, Thompson R, Bland JM. Cough hypersensitivity syndrome: a distinct clinical entity.

Newell SJ, Booth IW, Morgan MEI, McNeish AS (1987). Gastro-esophageal reflux in the pre-term infant. Pediatr Res 22:A104.

Orenstein SR, Orenstein DM (1988). Gastroesophageal reflux and respiratory disease in children. J Pediatr 112: 847-858.

Orenstein SR (1991).  Gastroesophageal reflux. In: Stockman J, Winter R, eds. Current Problems in Pediatrics. Chicago: Mosby Year Book Medical Publishers 21: 193-241.

Phillips GE, Pike SE, Rosenthal M, Bush A (1998).  Holding the baby: head downwards positioning for physiotherapy does not cause gastro-esophageal reflux.  Eur Respir J  12: 954-957.

Puetz et al (1995). Gastroesophageal-induced cough syncope. Am J of Gastroenterology 90(12): 2204-6.

Scott RB, O’Loughlin EV, Gall DG (1985).  Gastroesophageal reflux in patients with cystic fibrosis. J Pediatr  106: 223-227.

Shaw M, Dent J, Beebe T, Junghard O, Wiklund I, Lind T, Johnsson F (2008) The Reflux Disease Questionnaire: a measure for assessment of treatment response in clinical trials. Health Qual Life Outcomes Apr 30;6:31. doi: 10.1186/1477-7525-6-31.

Stringer DA, Sprigg A, Juodis E, Corey M, Daneman A, Levison HJ, Durie PR (1988). The association of cystic fibrosis, gastroesophageal reflux, and reduced pulmonary function. Can Assoc Radiol J 39: 100-102.

Vandenplas Y, Diericx A, Blecker U, Lanciers S, Deneyer M (1991). Oesophageal pH monitoring data during chest physiotherapy. J Pediatr Gastroenterol and Nutr 13: 23-26.

Vinocur CD, Marmon L, Schidlow DV, Weintraub WH (1985). Gastroesophageal reflux in the infant with cystic fibrosis. Am J Surg 149: 182-186.

Zoumot Z, Wilson R (2012). Respiratory infection in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Curr Opin Infect Dis 23(2):165-70.

Musculoskeletal issues

Baris S, Ozen A, Ercan H, Karakoc-Aydiner E, Cagan H, Ozdemir C, Barlan M, Bahceciler NN, Barlan IB (2011). Osteoporosis: an ignored complication of CVID. Pediatr Allergy Immunol Nov;22(7):676-83

Cleeland CS, Ryan KM (1994). Pain assessment: global use of the Brief Pain Inventory.Ann Acad Med Singapore. 23(2):129-138

Dave RK, Arroliga AC, Prince-Fiocco M (2009). Osteoporosis and osteopenia in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Chest 136: 9S

Extrapulmonary features of bronchiectasis: muscle function, exercise capacity, fatigue and health status (2012). Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine:7;3

Guran T, Turan S, Karadag B, Ersu R, Karakoc F, Bereket A, Dagli E (2008). Bone mineral density in children with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Respiration 75(4): 432-436.

Gale N, Bolton CE, Duckers J, Enright S, Cockcroft JR, Shale DJ (2012) Chron Resp Dis 9(4):231-8.

Melzack R (1975). The McGill Pain Questionnaire: Major properties and scoring methods. Pain. 1:277-299

Ozalp O, Inal-Ince D, Calik E, Vardar-Yagli N, Saglam M, Savci S, Arikan H, Bosnak-Guclu M, Coplu L (2012) Extrapulmonary features of bronchiectasis: muscle function, exercise capacity, fatigue, and health status Multidiscip Respir Med  7:3

Paul T King, Stephen R Holdsworth, Michael Farmer, Nicholas J Freezer, Peter W Holmes (2012). Chest pain and exacerbations of bronchiectasis. Int J Gen Med 5;1019-1024

Shadick NA, Fanta CH, Weinblatt ME, O’Donnell W, Coblyn JS (1994). Bronchiectasis. A late feature of severe rheumatoid arthritis. Medicine (Baltimore) 73 (3): 161-170.


Angrill J, Agusti C, de Celis R, Rano A, Gonzalez J, Sole T (2002) Bacterial colonisation in patients with bronchiectasis: microbial pattern and risk factors Thorax Jan;57(1):15-9

Ansari NN, Fathali M, Naghdi S, Hasson S, Jalaie S, Rastak MS (2012). A randomised, double-blind clinical trial comparing the effects of continuous and pulsed ultrasound in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Physiotherapy Theory and Practice  28(2): 85-94.

Antunes M, Cohen N (2007) Mucociliary clearance – a critical upper airway host defense mechanism and methods of assessment. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 7: 5-10.

Benninger M, Ferguson B, Hadley J (2003) Adult chronic rhinosinusitis: definitions, diagnosis, epidemiology and pathophysiology. Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery 129: S1-32.

Cheng Y, Decker P, O’Byrne M (2006) Clinical and laboratory characteristics of 75 patients with specific polysaccharide antibody deficiency syndrome. Ann Allerg Asthma Imm 97: 306-311.

Downie SR, Andersson M, Rimmer J, Leuppi JD, Xuan W, Akerlund A, Peat JK, Salome CM.(2004) Symptoms of persistent allergic rhinitis during a full calendar year in house dust mite-sensitive subjects. Allergy.Apr;59(4):406-14.

Durr D, Desrosiers M, Dassa C (1999) Quality of life in patients with rhinosinusitis. Journal of Otolaryngology 28: 108-111.

Fokkens W, Lund V, Mullol J (2007) European Position paper on rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps group. Rhinology Supplement.

Guilemany J, Alobid I, Angrill J, Ballestreros F, Bernal-Sprekelsen M, Picado C, Mullol J (2006) The impact of bronchiectasis associated to sinonasal disease on quality of life. Resp Med 100: 1997-2003.

Guilemany J, Angrill J, Alobid I, Centellas S, Pujols L, Bartra J, Bernal-Sprekelsen M, Valero A, Picardo C, Mullol J (2009) United airways again: high prevalence of rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps in bronchiectasis. Allergy 64: 790-797.

Guilemany J, Angrill K, Alobid I, Centellas S, Prades E, Roca J, Pujols L, Bernal-Sprekelsen M, Picado C, Mullol J (2009) United airways: the impact of chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps in bronchiectasic patient’s quality of life. Allergy 64: 1524-1529.

Høsøien E, Lund AB, Vasseljen O (2010) Similar effect of therapeutic ultrasound and antibiotics for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis: a randomised trial. J Physiother 56: 27–32

King P, Holdsworkth S, Freezer N, Villanueva E, Holmes P.(2006) Characterisation of the onset and presenting clinical features of adult bronchiectasis. Respiratory Medicine; 100: 2183-2189.

Lanza D, Kennedy D (1997) Adult rhinosinusitis defined. Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery 117: S1-S7.

Loebinger M, Bilton D, Wilson R.(2009) Upper airways: 2. Bronchiectasis, cystic fibrosis and sinusitis. Thorax; 64: 1096-1101

Lund V, Mackay I (1993) Staging in rhinosinusitis. Rhinology 31: 183-184.

Meltzer E, Hamilos D.(2011) Rhinosinusitis diagnosis and management for the clinician. A synopsis of recent consensus guidelines. Mayo Clin Proc; 86(5): 427-443.

Nathan R, Santilli J, Rockwell W, Glassheim J (2004) Effectiveness of immunotherapy for recurring sinusitis  associated with allergic rhinitis as assessed by the Sinusitis Outcomes Questionnaire. Ann Allerg Asthma Imm 92: 668-672.

Piccirillo J, Merritt M, Richards M (2002) Psychometric and clinimetric validity of the 20-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-20). Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery 126: 41-47.

Rudmik, L and Soler ZM (2015) Medical Therapies for Adult Chronic Sinusitis: A Systematic Review. JAMA, 314(9):926-939

Young D, Morton R, Bartley J (2010). Therapeutic ultrasound as treatment for chronic rhinosinusitis: preliminary observations. J Laryngol Otol May;124(5):495-9

Yang X, Xu Y, J J, Li R, Liu X, Sun Y.(2017) Chronic rhinosinusitis is associated with higher prevalence and severity of bronchiectasis in patients with COPD. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis; 12: 655-662.

Urinary Incontinence

Avery K, Donovan J, Peters T, Shaw C, Gotoh M, and Abrams P (2004). ICIQ: a brief and robust measure for evaluating the symptoms and impact of urinary incontinence. Neurourol Urodyn :23(4):322-30

Bradley CS et al (2010) The Questionnaire for Urinary Incontinence Diagnosis (QUID): Validity and Responsiveness to Change in Women Undergoing Non-Surgical Therapies for Treatment of Stress Predominant Urinary Incontinence. Neurourol Urodyn. Jun; 29(5): 727–734.

Browne WJ, Wood CJ, Desai M, Weller PH (2009). Urinary incontinence in 9-16 year olds with cystic fibrosis compared to other respiratory conditions and a normal group. J Cyst Fibros Jan;8(1):50-7

Button BM, Sherburn M, Chase J, McLachlan Z, Wilson J, Kotsimbos T (2004). Incontinence (urinary and bowel) in women with cystic fibrosis compared to COPD and controls: prevalence, severity and bother. Paed Pulmon Suppl 27,A359.

Button BM, Sherburn M, Chase J, Stillman B, Wilson J (2005). Pelvic Floor Muscle Function in Women with Chronic Lung Disease (Cystic Fibrosis and COPD) versus controls: Relationship to Urinary Incontinence. Paed Pulmon; Suppl 28, A368.

Button BM, Sherburn M, Chase J, Stillman B, Wilson J (2005). Effect of a Three Months Physiotherapeutic Intervention on Incontinence in Women with Chronic Cough Related to Cystic Fibrosis and COPD. Paed Pulmon Suppl 28, A369.

Button BM, Burge A, SherburnM et al (2011). Prevalence and impact of urinary incontinence in adult men with CF. Paed Pulmon Suppl.34:356.

Burge AT, Holland AE, Sherburn M, Wilson J, Cox NS, Rasekaba TM, McAleer R, Morton JM, Button BM (2015). Prevalence and impact of urinary incontinence in men with cystic fibrosis. Physiotherapy 101(2):166-70.

Chiarelli P, Brown W, McElduff P. (1999) Leaking Urine: Prevalence and Associated Factors in Australian Women. Neururology and Urodynamics 18:567-577.

Cornacchia M, Zenorini A, Perobelli S, Zanolla L, Mastella G, Braggion C (2001). Prevalence of urinary incontinence in women with cystic fibrosis. BJU Int Jul;88(1):44-8.

Duignan N, McDonnell MJ, Mokoka MC, Rutherford RM (2018). High prevalence of stress urinary incontinence in adult patients with bronchiectasis. Irish Medical Journal. 16(2):1-2

Gumery L, Hodgson G. Humphries N, Sheldon J, Stableforth D. Mackenzie W, Honeybourne D, Hawkins G (2002). The prevalence of urinary incontinence in the adult male population of a regional cystic fibrosis centre. J of Cyst Fibros Vol.1 Suppl.1:351A.

McVean RJ, Orr A, Webb AK, Bradbury A, Kay L, Philips E, Dodd ME (2003). Treatment of urinary incontinence in cystic fibrosis. J Cyst Fibros Dec;2(4):171-6.

Miller JH, Ashton-Miller JA, deLancey JOL (1998). A pelvic muscle pre-contraction can reduce cough-related urine loss in selected women with mild stress urinary incontinence. J Am Geriatr Soc 46:870-874.

Moran F, Bradley JM, Boyle L, Elborn JS (2003) Incontinence in adult females with Cystic Fibrosis: a Northern Ireland survey. Int J Clin Pract Vol 57: no 3 182

Nankivell G, Caldwell P, Follett J (2010). Urinary incontinence in adolescents with cystic fibrosis. Paediatric Pulmonary Reviews 11(2): 95-99.

Nixon GM, Glazner JA, Martin JM, Sawyer SM (2002) Urinary incontinence in adolescent females with Cystic Fibrosis. Pediatrics. 110( 2 Pt1): e22

Orr A, MvVean R, Webb AK, Dodd ME (2001) Questionnaire survey of urinary incontinence in women with Cystic Fibrosis. Brit Med J Vol 322: 1521.

Prasad SA, Balfour-Lynn IM, Carr SB, Madge SL (2006). A comparison of the prevalence of urinary incontinence in girls with cystic fibrosis, asthma and healthy controls. Pediatr Pulmonol Nov 41(11):1065-8.

Prys-Picard C, Niven R (2006). Urinary incontinence in patients with bronchiectasis. Eur Respir J 27(4): 866-867.

Rees J, Tedd H, De Soyza A (2013). Managing urinary incontinence in adults with bronchiectasis. Brit J Nurs 2013; 22(9): S15-19.

Sapsford R, Richardson CA, Stanton WR (2006). Sitting posture affects pelvic floor muscle activity in parous women: An observational study. Aust J Physiother 52(3):219-222.

Thomas TM, Plymat KR, Blannin J, Meade TW. (1980) Prevalence of urinary incontinence. Brit Med J 281: 1243-1245.

Vella M, Cartwright R, Cardozo L, Parsons M, Madge S, Burns Y (2009). Prevalence of incontinence and incontinence-specific quality of life impairment in women with cystic fibrosis. Neurourol Urodyn 28(8):986-9

White D, Stiller K, Roney F (2000)  The prevalence and severity of symptoms of incontinence in adult cystic fibrosis patients. Physiotherapy Theory and Practice 16:35-42.