Active Cycle of Breathing Technique
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Blue Booklet. 2009 Physiotherapy for people with cystic fibrosis from infant to adult. European Cystic Fibrosis Society Website. International Physiotherapy Group .
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Jones, A., & Rowe, B. H. (2000). Issues in pulmonary nursing. Bronchopulmonary hygiene physical therapy in bronchiectasis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review. Heart & Lung, 29(2), 125-135.
Lee AL, Burge A, Holland AE. (2013) Airway clearance techniques for bronchiectasis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. May 31;5:CD008351.
Lee A, Button B, Denehy L.(2008) Current Australian and NZ physiotherapy practice in the management of patients with chronic bronchiectasis and COPD. NZ Journal of Physiotherapy;36(2):49-58
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Dab I, Alexander F. (1979)The Mechanism of Autogenic Drainage Studied with Flow-Volume Curves. Monogr, Paediatr 10; 50-53,
Davidson AGF, McIlwaine PM, Wong LTK, Nakielna EM, Pirie GE. (1988)Physiotherapy in Cystic Fibrosis, A Comparative Trial of Positive Expiratory Pressure, Autogenic Drainage and Conventional Percussion and Drainage Techniques. Paediatr Pulmonol, suppl. 132.
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McIlwaine M, Wong LT, Chilvers M, Davidson GF. (2010) Long term comparative trial of two different chest physiotherapy techniques: postural drainage with percussion and autogenic drainage, in the treatment of cystic fibrosis. Pediatr Pulmomol Nov; 45 (11): 1064-9.
McIlwaine PM, Davidson AGF, Wong LTK, Pirie G (1991). The effect of chest physiotherapy by Postural Drainage and Autogenic Drainage on oxygen saturation in Cystic Fibrosis. Pediatr Pulmonol Suppl 6, 291.
Miller S, Hall DO, Clayton CB (1995) Chest Physiotherapy in Cystic Fibrosis: A comparative Study of Autogenic Drainage and the Active Cycle of Breathing Techniques with Postural Drainage. Thorax 50; 165-169.
Pfleger A, Theissl B,Oberwalder B, Zach MS (1992). “Self administered chest physiotherapy in cystic fibrosis: a comparative study of high pressure PEP and autogenic drainage. Lung 170(6) 323-330.
Savci S, Ince DI, Arikan H (2000). A comparison of autogenic drainage and the active cycle of breathing techniques in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. J Cardiopulm Rehabil 20(1):37-43
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Gravity Assisted Drainage
Button BM (2010). The Effects of Body Positioning on Ventilation: Implications for Airway Clearance Therapy. Pediatr Pulmonol Suppl; 33: S13.2: 176-178.
Button BM, Heine RG, Catto-Smith AG, Phelan PD, Olinsky A, Ditchfield MR, Story I (1999). Chest physiotherapy in infants with cystic fibrosis: to tip or not to tip? Resp Med 93:660-665
Cecins N et al (1999). The active cycle of breathing techniques – to tip or not to tip? Resp Med 93;660-665
Craig B, Becklake M et al (1971). “Closing volume” and its relationship to gas exchange in seated and supine positions. J Appl Physiol 31 (5):717-721.
Eaton T, Young P, Zeng I, Kolbe J (2007). A randomised evaluation of the acute efficacy, acceptability and tolerability of flutter and active cycle of breathing with and without postural drainage in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Chronic Respir Dis 4:23-40
Elkins MR, Alison JA, Bye PT (2005). Effect of body position on maximal expiratory pressure and flow in adults with CF. Pediatr Pulmonol 40(5):385-91.
Frownfelter D and Dean E (2006) Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Physical Therapy; evidence and practice; Chapter 19: Body positioning. Fourth edition:307-324.
Kaneko K, Bates DV et al (1966) Regional distribution of ventilation and perfusion as a function of body position. J Appl Physiol 21(3):767-777.
Krieg S et al (2007). Position affects distribution of ventilation in the lungs of older people: an experimental study. Aust J Physiother 53:179-184.
Lannefors L and Wollmer P. Mucus clearance with three chest physiotherapy regimes in CF: a comparison between postural drainage, PEP and physical exercise. Eur Respir J 1992;5:748-753.
Lannefors L, Wollmer P (1992) Mucus clearance with three chest physiotherapy regimes in cystic fibrosis: a comparison between postural drainage, PEP and physical exercise. Eur Respir J 5(6):748-753
Zack MB, Pontoppidan H, Kazemi H (1974) The effect of lateral positions on gas exchange in pulmonary disease. Am RevRespirDis 110:49-55
Bauer ML,McDougal J, Schoumacher RA (1994). Comparison of manual and mechanical chest percussion in hospitalized patients with cystic fibrosis. J Pediatr. Feb;124(2):250-4
Dallimore K, Jenkins S and Tucker B (1998).Respiratory and cardiovascular responses to manual chest percussion in normal subjects. Aust J physiother 44: 4;267-274
Mazzocco MC, Owens GR, Kirilloff LH, Rogers RM (1985).Chest percussion and postural drainage in patients with bronchiectasis. Chest Sep;88(3):360-3.
Pryor JA, Parker RA, Webber BA (1981). A Comparison of Mechanical and Manual Percussion as Adjuncts to Postural Drainage in the Treatment of Cystic Fibrosis in Adolescents and Adults. Physiotherapy 67; 140 141.
Webber W, Parker R, Hofmeyr J, Hodson M (1985) Evaluation of self-percussion during postural drainage using the forced expiration technique. Physiotherapy Theory and Practice. Vol. 1: pp 42-45