References

Bronchiectasis: A Guide for Primary Care

TSANZ bronchiectasis guidelines

Active Cycle of Breathing Technique

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Lapin CD. Airway physiology, autogenic drainage and active cycle of breathing. Respiratory Care (2002)47:778-85

Lewis et al. The Active Cycle of Breathing Technique: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Respiratory Medicine (2012) 106, 155-172

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McKoy et al. Active cycle of breathing for cystic fibrosis. Cochrane Database Systematic Review (2012) Dec 12;12:CD007862

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Pike SE, Machin AC, Dix KJ, Pryor JA, Hodson ME. Comparison of Flutter VRP1 and Forced Expirations (FE) with Active Cycle of Breathing Techniques (ACBT) in Subjects with Cystic Fibrosis. The Netherlands Journal of Medicine 54 (Suppl); S55, 1999.

Pryor JA, Prasad SA. Physiotherapy for Respiratory and Cardiac Problems (4th Ed) 2008Churchill Livingston, Edinburgh pp 137-141

Pryor JA, Webber BA, Hodson ME, Batten JC. Evaluation of the Forced Expiration Technique as an Adjunct to Postural Drainage in Treatment of Cystic Fibrosis. British Medical Journal 2; 417 418, 1979.

Thompson et al. Randomised crossover study of the Flutter device and the active cycle of breathing technique in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Thorax (2002) 57:446-448

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Van der Schans CP. Forced expiratory manoeuvres to increase transport of bronchial mucous: a mechanistic approach. Monaldi Archives of Chest Disease(1997)52:367-370.

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Airway Clearance

Blue Booklet. Physiotherapy for people with cystic fibrosis from infant to adult. European Cystic Fibrosis Society Website. International Physiotherapy Group 2009.

Holland AE, Button BM. Is there a role for airway clearance techniques in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease? Review Series: physiotherapy techniques for respiratory disease. Chronic Respiratory Disease 2006; 3:83-91.

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P. Murray, J. L. Pentland, K. Turnbull, S. MacQuarrie, A. T. Hill, Sputum colour: a useful clinical tool in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis.DOI: 10.1183/09031936.00163208 Published 1 August 2009

Pryor JA, Prasad SA. Physiotherapy Techniques in: Pryor JA, Prasad SA (Eds) Physiotherapy for Respiratory and Cardiac Problems (4th edn) Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh pp 134 – 217, 2008.

Autogenic Drainage

App EM, Kieselmann R, Reinhardt D, Lindemann H, Dasgupta B, King M, Brand P. Sputum rheology changes in cystic fibrosis lung disease following two different types of physiotherapy: flutter vs autogenic drainage. Chest. 1998 Jul; 114(1):171-7.

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Davidson AGF, McIlwaine PM, Wong LTK, Nakielna EM, Pirie GE. Physiotherapy in Cystic Fibrosis, A Comparative Trial of Positive Expiratory Pressure, Autogenic Drainage and Conventional Percussion and Drainage Techniques. Pediatric Pulmonology, suppl. 132, 1988.

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Giles, DR, Wagener, JS, Accurso FJ, Butler-Simon N. Short term effects of Postural Drainage versus Autogenic Drainage on oxygen saturation and sputum recovery in patients with cystic fibrosis. Chest 1995; 108:952-954.

Kraemer, R. Rudeberg, A., Zumbuehl, C., Chevaillier, J. (1990). -Autogenic Drainage in CF patients (theory and practice). IACFA Newsletter, 7-10.

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Miller S, Hall DO, Clayton CB, Nelson R. “Chest physiotherapy in cystic fibrosis:a comparative study of autogenic drainage and the active cycle of breathing techniques with postural drainage and percussion. Thorax 1995:50 (2):165-169.

McIlwaine M, Wong LT, Chilvers M, Davidson GF. “Long term comparative trial of two different chest physiotherapy techniques: postural drainage with percussion and autogenic drainage, in the treatment of cystic fibrosis. Pediatr Pulmomol 2010 Nov; 45 (11): 1064-9.

McIlwaine PM, Davidson AGF, Wong LTK, Pirie G. The effect of chest physiotherapy by Postural Drainage and Autogenic Drainage on oxygen saturation in Cystic Fibrosis. Pediatr Pulmonol 1991; Suppl 6, 291.

Miller S, Hall DO, Clayton CB. Chest Physiotherapy in Cystic Fibrosis: A comparative Study of Autogenic Drainage and the Active Cycle of Breathing Techniques with Postural Drainage. Thorax 50; 165-169, 1995.

Pfleger A, Theissl B,Oberwalder B, Zach MS. “Self administered chest physiotherapy in cystic fibrosis: a comparative study of high pressure PEP and autogenic drainage. Lung 1992;170(6) 323-330.

Savci S, Ince DI, Arikan H. “A comparison of autogenic drainage and the active cycle of breathing techniques in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. J Cardiopulm Rehabil 2000;20(1):37-43

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Davidson AGF, Wong LTK, Pirie GE, McIlwaine PM 1992. Long term comparative trial of conventional percussion and drainage physiotherapy versus autogenic drainage in cystic fibrosis. Pediatric Pulmonology (Suppl)8:298

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Pryor JA,  TannenbaumE, Scott SF,  Burgess J, Cramer D, Gyia K, Hodson ME 2010. Beyond postural drainage and percussion: Airway clearance in people with cystic fibrosis. Journal of Cystic Fibrosis. 9: 3,pp 187–192

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Bronchiectasis

Baris S, Ozen A, Ercan H, Karakoc-Aydiner E, Cagan H, Ozdemir C, Barlan M, Bahceciler NN, Barlan IB. Osteoporosis: an ignored complication of CVID. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2011 Nov;22(7):676-83 O’Leary CJ, Wilson CB, Hansell DM, Cole PJ, Wilson R, Jones PW: Relationship between psychological well-being and lung health status in patients with bronchiectasis.  Respir Med 2002, 96:686-692 Ozalp O, Inal-Ince, D, Calik E, Vardar-Yagli N, Saglam M, Savci S, Arikan H, Bosnak-Guclu M, Coplu L.

Chalmers JD, Goeminne P, Aliberti S, McDonnell MJ, Lonni S, Davidson J, Poppelwell L, Salih W, Pesci A, Dupont LJ, Fardon TC, De Soyza A, Hill AT 2014 The bronchiectasis severity index. An international derivation and validation study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. Mar 1;189(5):576-85. doi: 1 Chronic suppurative lung disease and bronchiectasis in children and adults in Australia and New Zealand.

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Chang A, Masel J, Boyce NC, Wheaton G & Torzillo P 2003. Non-CF bronchiectasis: clinical and HRCT evaluation. Pediatr Pulmonol 35:477–83.

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Kapur N, Masters IB, Chang AB. Exacerbations in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis: clinical features and investigations. Respir Med 2009;103:1681-1687

King P, Holdsworth S, Freezer N, Villanueva E, Holmes P (2006a) Characterisation of the onset and presenting clinical features of adult bronchiectasis. Respiratory Medicine 100: 2183-2189

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Loebinger MR, Wells AU, Hansell DM et al. mortality in bronchiectasis: a long-term study assessing the factors influencing survival. Eur Resp J 2009;34:843-849

Martínez-García MÁ, de Gracia J, Vendrell Relat M, Girón RM, Máiz Carro L, de la Rosa Carrillo D, Olveira C. 2014.Multidimensional approach to non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis: the FACED score. Eur Respir J. May;43(5):1357-67.

Minor J, Karadzinska-Bislimorska J, Vasilevska K, Stoleski S, Mijakoski D 2015 Assessment of the Non-Cystic Fibrosis Bronchiectasis Severity:The FACED score vs the Bronchiectasis Severity Index. The Open Respiratory Medicine journal !SSN:1874-3064,Vol9

O’Leary CJ, Wilson CB, Hansell DM, Cole PJ, Wilson R, Jones PW: Relationship between psychological well-being and lung health status in patients with bronchiectasis.  Respir Med 2002, 96:686-692 Ozalp O, Inal-Ince, D, Calik E, Vardar-Yagli N, Saglam M, Savci S, Arikan H, Bosnak-Guclu M, Coplu L.

Onen ZP, Gulbay BE, Sen E et al. Analysis of the factors related to mortality in patients with bronchiectasis. Respir Med 2007;101:1390-1397

Quint JK, Millett E, Hurst JR, Smeeth L, Brown J; Time trends in incidence and prevalence of bronchiectasis in the UK. Thorax. 2012;67:A138 doi:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2012-202678.233

Seitz AE, Olivier KN, Adjemian J, Holland SM, Prevots R. Trends in bronchiectasis amongst Medicare beneficiaries in the United States, 2000 to 2007. Chest 2012;142(2):432-9.

Twiss, J, Metcalfe R, Edwards E & Byrnes C. 2005. New Zealand national incidence of bronchiectasis “too high” for a developed country. Archives of Disease in Childhood 90:737–40.

Exercise

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Bolton et al 2013, BTS Guideline on Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Adults British Thoracic Society Pulmonary Rehabilitation Guideline Group. Thorax 2013 Volume 68 Supplement 2

Burtin C, Hebestreit H. Rehabilitation in Patients with Chronic Respiratory Disease Other than Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Exercise and Physical Activity Interventions in Cystic Fibrosis and Non-Cystic Fibrosis Bronchiectasis. Respiration 2015;89:181–189

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Falk, B. Tenenbaum, G. (1996) The effectiveness of resistance training in children: A meta-analysis. Sports Med, 22: 176-186.

Fleck, S & Kraemer, W (1997) Designing resistance training programs. Human Kinetics, USA.

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Lee AL, Button BM, Ellis S, Stirling R, Wilson JW, Holland AE, Denehy L. Clinical Determinants of the 6-minute walk test in bronchiectasis. Respiratory Medicine 2009; 103: 780-5.

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McArdle WD, Katch F, Katch V. Exercise physiology, energy nutrition and human performance. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, 2001.

Munro PE, Holland AE, Bailey M, Button BM, Snell GI. Pulmonary rehabilitation following lung transplantation. Transplant Proc. 2009 Jan-Feb;41(1):292-5.

C Newall, R A Stockley and S L Hill. Exercise training and inspiratory muscle training in patients with bronchiectasis. Thorax 2005;60;943-948

Payne, V. Morrow, J. Johnson, L & Dalton, S (1997) “Resistance training in children and youth: a meta analysis.” Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 60:80-88.

Picone, R (1999) “Strength training for Children.” Fitness Management, p32-35.

Gravity Assisted Drainage

Button BM. The Effects of Body Positioning on Ventilation: Implications for Airway Clearance Therapy. Pediatr Pulmonol 2010; Suppl; 33: S13.2: 176-178.

Button BM,  Heine RG,  Catto-Smith AG, Phelan PD, Olinsky A. Postural drainage and gastro-oesophageal reflux in infants with cystic fibrosis. Arch Dis Child  1997;76:148-150

Button BM, Heine RG,  Catto-Smith AG, Phelan PD, Olinsky A, Ditchfield MR, Story I. Chest physiotherapy in infants with cystic fibrosis: to tip or not to tip? Resp Med 1999.93:660-665

Cecins N et al. The active cycle of breathing techniques – to tip or not to tip? Resp Med 1999:93;660-665

Craig B, Becklake M et al. “Closing volume” and its relationship to gas exchange in seated and supine positions.  J Appl Physiol 1971; 31 (5):717-721.

Eaton T, Young P, Zeng I, Kolbe J. 2007. A randomised evaluation of the acute efficacy, acceptability and tolerability of flutter and active cycle of breathing with and without postural drainage in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Chronic Respiratory Disease 4:23-40

Elkins MR, Alison JA, Bye PT. Effect of body position on maximal expiratory pressure and flow in adults with CF. Pediatr Pulmonol 2005;40(5):385-91.

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Kaneko K, Bates DV et al. Regional distribution of ventilation and perfusion as a function of body position. J Appl Physiol 1966;21(3):767-777.

Krieg S et al. Position affects distribution of ventilation in the lungs of older people: an experimental study. AJP 2007;53:179-184.

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Lannefors L, Wollmer P 1992 Mucus clearance with three chest physiotherapy regimes in cystic fibrosis: a comparison between postural drainage, PEP and physical exercise. European Respiratory Journal 5(6):748-753

Zack MB, Pontoppidan H, Kazemi H 1974 The effect of lateral positions on gas exchange in pulmonary disease. American Review of respiratory Disease 110:49-55

Gastro-oesophageal reflux

Bendig DW, Seilheimer DK, Wagner ML, Ferry GD, Harrison GM.  Complications of gastroesophageal reflux in patients with cystic fibrosis. J Pediatr 1982; 100: 536-540.

Button BM, Heine RG, Catto-Smith A, Phelan PD, Olinsky A.  Postural drainage and gastro-oesophageal reflux in infants with cystic fibrosis. Arch Dis Child 1997; 76: 148-150.

Button BM, Heine RG, Catto-Smith AG, Olinsky A, Phelan PD, Ditchfield MR, Story Chest physiotherapy in infants with cystic fibrosis: to tip or not? A five-year study. Pediatric Pulmonology 2003;35:208-213.

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Dobhan R and Castell Donald. Normal and abnormal proximal esophageal acid exposure: results of ambulatory dual-probe pH monitoring. Am J Gastroenterol 1993; Vol. 88;1:25-29

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Foster AC, Voyles JB, Murphy SA.  Twenty four hour pH monitoring in children with cystic fibrosis: association of chest physiotherapy to gastro-esophageal reflux. Paediatr Res  1983; 17: 188A

Hassall E, Israel DM, Davidson ADF, Wong LTK. Barrett’s Esophagus in Children with cystic fibrosis: not a co-incidental association. American Journal of Gastroenterology 1993; Vol. 88 (11): 1934-1938

Howard PJ, Maher L, Pryde A, Heading RC. Symptomatic gastro-oesophageal reflux, abnormal oesophageal acid exposure, and mucosal acid sensitivity are three separate, though related, aspects of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Gut 1991; 32: 128-132.

Ing AJ, Ngu MC, Breslin AB. Pathogenesis of chronic persistent cough associated with gastroesophageal reflux. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1994; 149:160-167.

Lee AL, Button BM, Denehy L, Roberts SJ, Bamford TL, Ellis SJ, Mu FT, Heine RG, Stirling RG, Wilson JW. Proximal and distal gastro-oesophageal reflux in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis. Respirology 2014 19: 211-217.

Lee AL, Denehy L, Wilson JW, Stirling RG, Heine RG, Button BM. Upright positive expiratory pressure therapy and exercise: effects on gastroesophageal reflux in COPD and bronchiectasis. Respiratory Care 2012;57(9):1460-7.

Lee AL, Button BM, Denehy L, Wilson JW. Gastro-oesophageal in noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Pulmonary Medicine, Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 395020, 6 pages, doi:10.1155/2011/395020.

Ledson MJ, Tran J, Walshaw MJ. Prevalence and mechanisms of gastro-oesophageal reflux in adult cystic fibrosis patients. J Royal Soc Med 1998;91: 7-9.

Ledson MJ, Wilson GE, Tran J, Walshaw MJ. Tracheal microaspiration in adult cystic fibrosis. J Royal Soc Med 1998;91: 10-12.

Malfroot A, Dab I.  New insights on gastro-oesophageal reflux in cystic fibrosis by longitudinal follow up. Arch Dis Child 1991; 66: 1339-1345.

Newell SJ, Booth IW, Morgan MEI, McNeish AS. Gastro-esophageal reflux in the pre-term infant. Pediatr Res 1987;22:A104.

Orenstein SR, Orenstein DM. Gastroesophageal reflux and respiratory disease in children. J Pediatr 1988; 112: 847-858.

Orenstein SR.  Gastroesophageal reflux. In: Stockman J, Winter R, eds. Current Problems in Pediatrics. Chicago: Mosby Year Book Medical Publishers, 1991; 21: 193-241.

Palm K, Sawicki G, Rosen R. The impact of reflux burden on Pseudomonas positivity in children with cystic fibrosis.  Paediatric Pulmoology 2012; June 47(6):582-7.

Phillips GE, Pike SE, Rosenthal M, Bush A.  Holding the baby: head downwards positioning for physiotherapy does not cause gastro-esophageal reflux.  Eur Respir J 1998; 12: 954-957.

Puetz et al. Gastroesophageal-induced cough syncope. Am J of Gastroenterology 1995:90(12): 2204-6.

Scott RB, O’Loughlin EV, Gall DG.  Gastroesophageal reflux in patients with cystic fibrosis. J Pediatr 1985; 106: 223-227.

Stringer DA, Sprigg A, Juodis E, Corey M, Daneman A, Levison HJ, Durie PR. The association of cystic fibrosis, gastroesophageal reflux, and reduced pulmonary function. Can Assoc Radiol J 1988; 39: 100-102.

Vandenplas Y, Diericx A, Blecker U, Lanciers S, Deneyer M.  Oesophageal pH monitoring data during chest physiotherapy. J Pediatr Gastroenterol and Nutr 1991; 13: 23-26.

Vinocur CD, Marmon L, Schidlow DV, Weintraub WH. Gastroesophageal reflux in the infant with cystic fibrosis. Am J Surg 1985; 149: 182-186.

Zoumot Z, Wilson R. Respiratory infection in noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis.

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Indigenous Health

Australian Bureau of Statistics (2006) National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey: Australia, 2004-05. Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2006) Australian hospital statistics 2004-05. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2006) Australia’s health 2006: the tenth biennial health report of the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

Brown N. History, law, and policy as a foundation for health care delivery for Australian indigenous children. Pediatr Clin North Am 2009;56:1561-1576.

Chang AB, Bell SC, Byrnes CA, Grimwood K, Holmes PW, King PT, Kolbe J et al. Bronchiectasis and chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD) in children and adults in Australian and New Zealand: Thoracic Society of Australia and New Zealand and Australian Lung Foundation Position Statement. Med J Aust 2010;193:356-365.

Currie B, Fisher D, Anstey N, Lum G, Jenney A, Stephens D, Jacups S (1998) Keep melioidosis in mind in the monsoon. Northern Territory Disease Control Bulletin; 5(4): 18

Hanna J, Torzillo P (1991) Acute respiratory infections in Australian Aboriginal children: current knowledge and future requirements. Papua and New Guinea Medical Journal; 34(3): 204-210

Hill LE, Ritchie G, Wightman AJ, Hill AT, Murchison JT. Comparison between conventional interrupted high-resolution CT and volume multidetector CT acquisition in the assessment of bronchiectasis. Br J Radiol 2010;83:67-70.

King M. An overall approach to health care for indigenous peoples. Pediatr Clin North Am 2009;56:1239-1242.

Matsuoka S, Uchiyama K, Shima H, Ueno N, Oish S, Nojiri Y. Bronchoarterial ratio and bronchial wall thickness on high-resolution CT in asymptomatic subjects: correlation with age and smoking. Am J Roentgenol 2003;180:513-518.

McDermott R, Wei L, Tulip F, Ring I (1998) Health indicators for North Queensland. Cairns: Tropical Public Health Unit Queensland Health

McKenzie DK, Abramson M, Crockett AJ, at al. The COPDX Plan: Australian and New Zealand Guidelines for the Management of COPD. 2007. Available from www.COPDX.com.au

McKenzie DK, Frith PA, Burdon JGW, Town GI. The COPDX plan: Australian and New Zealand guidelines for the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Med J Aust. 2003; 178(6 Suppl):S1-S40.

Office of Aboriginal Health (1997) Hospitalisation for respiratory tract diseases in Western Australia, 1988-1993: a comparison of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal hospital admission patterns. Perth: Office of Aboriginal Health, Health Department of Western Australia

O’Grady KF, Revell A, Maguire G, Millonig R, Newman M, Reid D, et al.  In: Lung Health Services for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples in Queensland. 2010. Brisbane: Queensland Health.

Rob Pierce (Convenor), Ral Antic, Anne Chang, Mark Howard, Alan James, Graeme Maguire, et al. Respiratory and sleep Health in Indigenous Australians 2009.

Singleton RJ, Valery PC, Morris P, Byrnes CA, Grimwood K, Redding G, Torzillo PJ et al. Indigenous children from three countries with non-cystic fibrosis chronic suppurative lung disease/bronchiectasis. Pediatr Pulmonol 2014;49:189-200.

Steinfort DP, Brady S, Weisinger HS, Einsiedel L. Bronchiectasis in Central Australia: a young face to an old disease. Respir Med 2008;102:574-578.

Thomson N, Kirov E, Ali M (2003) Respiratory system disorders. In: Thomson N, ed. The health of Indigenous Australians. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press: 224-246

Valery P, Chang A, Shibasaki S (2001) High prevalence of asthma in five remote Indigenous communities in Australia. European Respiratory Journal; 17(6): 1089-1096

Valery PC, Torzillo PJ, Mulholland K, Boyce NC, Purdie DM, Chang AB (2004) Hospital-based case-control study of bronchiectasis in Indigenous children in Central Australia. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal; 23(10): 902-908

Verheijden MW, Ton A, James AL, Wood M, Musk AW (2002) Respiratory morbidity and lung function in two Aboriginal communities in Western Australia. Respirology; 7(3): 247-252

Inhalation Therapy

Daviskas E, Anderson SD, Young IH. Effect of mannitol and repetitive coughing on the sputum properties in bronchiectasis. Respiratory Medicine 2012;104(3):371-7.

Daviskas E, Anderson SD,Jaques A, Charlton B. Inhaled mannitol improves the hydration & surface properties of sputum in patients with CF. Chest 2010; 137: 861-868.

Daviskas E, Anderson SD, Eberl S, Young IH. Effect of increasing doses of mannitol on mucus clearance in patients with bronchiectasis. ERJ 2008;31:765-772.

Daviskas E, Anderson SD, Ebert S, Chan HK,Young IH. The 24-h effect of mannitol on the clearance of mucus in patients with bronchiectasis. Chest 2001;119(2):414-21.

Dolovich MA. Influence of inspiratory flow rate, particle size, and airway calibre on aerosolized drug delivery to the lung. Respir Care 2000 Jun; 45(6): 597-608.

Dolovich MB, Ahrens RC, Hess DR, et al. Device selection and outcomes of aerosol therapy: evidence-based guidelines: American College of Chest Physicians/American College of Asthma, Allergy, and Immunology. Chest. 2005;127(1):335–371

Dolovich MB, Fink JB. Aerosols and Devices. Respir Care Clin N Am 2001 Jun; 7(2): 131-173.

Dolovich MB, Dhand R. Aerosol drug delivery: developments in device design and clinical use. The Lancet. 2011;377(9770):1032–1045

Elkins MR, Robinson M, Rose BR, et al. Bye PTP. A controlled trial of long-term inhaled hypertonic saline in patients with CF. NEJM 2006;354:229-240.

European Respiratory Society Nebulizer Guidelines: Clinical Aspects. Eur Respir Rev 2000; Vol 10, No. 76.

Eur Respir J. 2001 Jul;18(1):228-42. European Respiratory Society Guidelines on the use of nebulizers. Boe J(1), Dennis JH, O’Driscoll BR, Bauer TT, Carone M .

European Respiratory Society Nebulizer Guidelines: Technical Aspects. Eur Respir Rev 2000; Vol 10, No. 72.

Everard ML. Aerosol therapy: regimen and device compliance in daily practice. Paediatr Respir Rev 2006; 7 Suppl 1: S80-82.

Everard ML.Inhalation therapy in infants. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2003 Jul 18; 55(7): 869-878.

Jaques A, Daviskas E, Turton JA, McKay K, Cooper P, Stirling RG, Robertson CF, Bye TP, Lesouef PN et al. Inhaled mannitol improves lung function in CF. Chest 2008;133:1388-1396.

Lange CF, Finlay WH. Liquid atomizing: nebulizing and other methods of producing aerosols. J Aerosol Med 2006; 19(1): 28-35.

Lavorini F, Corrigan CJ, Barnes PJ, et al. Retail sales of inhalation devices in European countries: so much for a global policy. Respiratory Medicine. 2011;105(7):1099–1103

Lavorini F, Fontana GA. Targeting drugs to the airways: the role of spacer devices. Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery. 2009;6(1):91–102

Laube BL, Geller DE, Lin TC, Dalby RN, Diener-West M, Zeitlin PL. Positive expiratory pressure changes aerosol distribution in patients with CF. respir Care 2005;50:1438-1444.

Laube BL, Janssens HM, De Jongh FHC, et al. What the pulmonary specialist should know about the new inhalation therapies. European Respiratory Journal. 2011;37(6):1308–1331

Newman SP. Spacer devices for metered dose inhalers. Clinical Pharmacokinetics. 2004;43(6):349–360

Nicolson C, Stirling R, Borg B, Button BM, Wilson JW, Holland AE. The long term effect of inhaled hypertonic saline 6% in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Respiratory Medicine 2012 DOI information: 10.1016/j.rmed.2011.12.021

Riedler J, Reade T, Button B, Robertson CF.  Inhaled hypertonic saline increases sputum expectoration in cystic fibrosis. J Paediatr Child Health (1996) 32:48-50.

Schüepp KG, Straub D, Möller A, Wildhaber JH. Deposition of aerosols in infants and children. J Aerosol Med 2004 Summer; 17(2): 153-156.

Lung anatomy and physiology

Button BM & Button B. Structure and Function of the Mucus Clearance System of the Lung. B.M. Button and B. Button. In Cystic Fibrosis: A Trilogy of Biochemistry, Physiology, and Therapy. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2013.

Key issues in Cardiorespiratory Physiotherapy. Ellis E & Alison J. 1992 Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford

Lapin CD. Airway physiology, AD & ACBT. Respir Care 2002;27(7):778-785.

Mead J, Takishima T, Leith D Stress distribution in lungs: a model of pulmonary elasticity. Journal of Applied Physiology 28: 596–608, 1970.

Menkes HA, Traystman RJ. Collateral Ventilation. American Review of Respiratory Disease 116; 287 – 309, 1977.

Nunn’s Applied respiratory physiology. Lamb A & Nunn JF. 1999. Edition 5: Elsevier

Pulmonary Pathophysiology – the essentials. John West MD. Williams & Wilkins

Respiratory Physiology. The Mosby Physiology Monograph Series. Michelle M. Cloutier. Mosby Elsevier. Philadelphia. 2007. ISBN 0-323-03628-7.

West JB Respiratory physiology – the essentials, 7th edn. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, 2004.

Lung Function

ATS/ERS Recommendations for Standardized Procedures for the Online and Offline Measurement of Exhaled Lower Respiratory Nitric Oxide and Nasal Nitric Oxide, 2005. 2005, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Vol. 171, pp. 912-930.

ATS/ERS task force: Standardisation of Lung Function tests. Interpretative strategies for lung function tests. R. Pellegrino, G. Viegi, V. Brusasco, R.O. Crapo, F. Burgos et al. 5, 2005, European Respiratory Journal, Vol. 26, pp. 948-68.

ATS/ERS Task Force: Standardisation of lung function testing. Standardisation of the measurement of lung volumes. J. Wanger, J.L. Clausen, A. Coates, O.F. Pedersen, V. Brusasco, F. Burgos et al. 2005, European Respiratory Journal, Vol. 26, pp. 511-522.

ATS/ERS TASK FORCE: STANDARDISATION OF LUNG FUNCTION TESTING. Standardisation of the single-breath determination of carbon monoxide uptake in the lung. N. MacIntyre, R.O. Crapo, G. Viegi, D.C. Johnson, C.P.M. van der Grinten, V. Brusasco, F. Burgos et al. 2005, European Respiratory Journal, Vol. 26, pp. 720-735.

Borg BM, Thompson BR, O’Hehir RE. Interpreting Lung Function Tests: A Step-by-Step Guide. Chichester : Wiley Blackwell, 2014. 978-1-118-40551-2.

Diagnostic accuracy of nitric oxide measurements to detect primary ciliary dyskinesia. M Boon, I Meyts, M Proesmans, FL Vermeulen, M Jorissen, K De Boeck. 5, 2014, European Journal of Clinical Investigation, Vol. 44, pp. 477–485.

Guideline for non-CF bronchiectasis. M C Pasteur, D Bilton, A T Hill. 2010, Thorax, Vol. 65, pp. i1-i58.

Multi-ethnic reference values for spirometry for the 3-95-yr age range: the global lung function 2012 equations. Quanjer PH, Stanojevic S, Cole TJ, Baur X, Hall GL, Culver BH, Enright PL, Hankinson JL, Ip MS, Zheng J, Stocks J and Initiative, ERS Global Lung Function. 6, Dec 2012, European Respiratory Journal, Vol. 40, pp. 1324-43.

The long term effect of inhaled hypertonic saline 6% in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. CHH Nicolson, RG Stirling, BM Borg, BM Button, JW Wilson, AE Holland. 5, May 2012, Respiratory Medicine, Vol. 106, pp. 661-667.

The nonspecific pulmonary function test: longitudinal follow-up and outcomes. Iyer VN, Schroeder DR, Parker KO, Hyatt RE, Scanlon PD. 2, Feb 2009, Chest, Vol. 135, pp. 419-24.

Lung Transplantation

Button BM, Roberts S, Kotsimbos T, Levvey B, Williams T, Bailey M, Snell G, Wilson JW. Gastroesophageal reflux (symptomatic and silent): a potentially significant problem in patients with cystic fibrosis before and after lung transplantation. Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation 2005;24:10:1522-29.

Burton PR, Button B, Brown W, Lee M, Roberst S, Hassen S, Bailey M, Smith A, Snell G. Medium-term outcome of fundoplication after lung transplantation. Diseases of the Esophagus 2009: 22: 642-648

Davis RD, Lau CI, Eubanks S et al. Improved lung allograft function following fundoplication in lung transplant patients with gastroesophageal disease undergoing lung transplantation. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2003;125:533-542.

Munro, P K Hayes, P Aurora Thoracic Organ Transplantation in Pryor & Prasad. Physiotherapy for cardiac and respiratory problems 4th edn Churchill Livingstone.

Munro Prue, Button Brenda et al. Should lung transplant recipients routinely perform airway clearance techniques. A randomized trial. Respirology (Carlton, Vic.) 2008;13(7): 1053-60.

Munro PE, Holland AE, Bailey M, Button BM, Snell GI. Pulmonary rehabilitation following lung transplantation. Transplant Proc. 2009 Jan-Feb;41(1):292-5.

Orens JB, Estenne M, Arcasoy S, Conte JV, Corris P, Egan JJ, Egan T, Keshavjee S, Knoop C, Kotloff R, Martinez FJ, Nathan S, Palmer S, Patterson A, Singer L, Snell G, Studer S, Vachiery JL, Glanville AR; Pulmonary Scientific Council of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. International guidelines for the selection of lung transplant candidates: 2006 update–a consensus report from the Pulmonary Scientific Council of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2006 Jul;25(7):745-55.

Reid KL, McKenzie FN, Menkis AH, Novick RJ, Pflugfelder PW, Kostuk WJ, Ahmad D. Importance of chronic aspiration in recipients of heart-lung transplants. Lancet 1990; 336: 206-208.

Manual Techniques

Bauer ML,McDougal J, Schoumacher RA 1994. Comparison of manual and mechanical chest percussion in hospitalized patients with cystic fibrosis. J Pediatr. Feb;124(2):250-4

Dallimore K, Jenkins S and Tucker B 1998.Respiratory and cardiovascular responses to manual chest percussion in normal subjects. Australian Journal ofPhysiotherapy44: 4;267-274

Mazzocco MC, Owens GR, Kirilloff LH, Rogers RM 1985.Chest percussion and postural drainage in patients with bronchiectasis. Chest. 1985 Sep;88(3):360-3.

Pryor JA, Parker RA, Webber BA. A Comparison of Mechanical and Manual Percussion as Adjuncts to Postural Drainage in the Treatment of Cystic Fibrosis in Adolescents and Adults. Physiotherapy 67; 140 141, 1981.

Webber W, Parker R, Hofmeyr J, Hodson M 1985 Evaluation of self-percussion during postural drainage using the forced expiration technique. Physiotherapy theory and Practice. Vol. 1: pp 42-45

Musculoskeletal issues

Baris S, Ozen A, Ercan H, Karakoc-Aydiner E, Cagan H, Ozdemir C, Barlan M, Bahceciler NN, Barlan IB. Osteoporosis: an ignored complication of CVID. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2011 Nov;22(7):676-83

Dave RK, Arroliga AC, Prince-Fiocco M. Osteoporosis and osteopenia in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Chest 2009: 136: 9S

Extrapulmonary features of bronchiectasis: muscle function, exercise capacity, fatigue, and health status Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine 2012, 7:3

Guran T, Turan S, Karadag B, Ersu R, Karakoc F, Bereket A, Dagli E. Bone mineral density in children with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Respiration 2008; 75(4): 432-436.

Gale N, Bolton CE, Duckers J, Enright S, Cockcroft JR, Shale DJ. Chronic Respiratory Disease 2012; 9(4):231-8.

Paul T King, Stephen R Holdsworth, Michael Farmer, Nicholas J Freezer, Peter W Holmes. Chest pain and exacerbations of bronchiectasis. Int J Gen Med 2012:5;1019-1024

Shadick NA, Fanta CH, Weinblatt ME, O’Donnell W, Coblyn JS. Bronchiectasis. A late feature of severe rheumatoid arthritis. Medicine (Baltimore) 1994: 73 (3): 161-170.

 

Oscillating PEP

Bottle PEP

Bellone A, Lascioli R, Rashi S, Guzzi L, Adone R. Chest physical therapy in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis: effectiveness of three methods. Archives of Physical Medicine & rehabilitation. 2000;81(5):558-60.

Bjorkqvist M. et al, (1997), Bottle-blowing in Hospital Treated Patients with Community Acquired Pneumonia, Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, 29, pp77-82

Campbell T. et al, (1986), The Use of a Simple Self-administered Method of Positive Expiratory Pressure (PEP) in Chest Physiotherapy after Abdominal Surgery, Physiotherapy, 72 (10), pp498-500.

Mestriner RG, Fernandes RO, Steffen LC, Donadio MV. Optimum design parameters for a therapist-constructed positive-expiratory-pressure therapy bottle device. Respir Care. 2009 Apr;54(4):504-8.

Flutter & Acapella

AARC Clinical Practice Guideline: Use of Positive Airway Pressure Adjuncts to Bronchial Hygiene Therapy Respiratory Care. Respir Care. 1993; 38: 516-521.

Althaus P et al. The Bronchial Hygiene Assisted by the Flutter VRP1 (Module Regulator of a Positive Pressure Oscillation on Expiration). Eur Resp J. 1989 suppl 8; 2:693.

Althaus P. Oscillating PEP – Flutter Therapy. In: McIlwaine M, Van Ginderdeuren F, Eds. Physiotherapy for people with Cystic Fibrosis throughout life: International Physiotherapy Group/Cystic Fibrosis 2009: 20-21

App EM, Kieselmann R, Reinhardt D, Lindemann H, Dasgupta B, King M, Brand P. Sputum rheology changes in cystic fibrosis lung disease following two different types of physiotherapy: flutter vs autogenic drainage. Chest. 1998 Jul; 114(1):171-7.

Bradley JM, Moran FM, Elborn JS. Evidence for Physical Therapies (Airway Clearance and Physical Training) in Cystic Fibrosis: an Overview of five Cochrane Systematic Reviews. Respir Med 2006;100:191-201.

Brooks D, Newbold E, Kozar LF, Rivera M. The flutter device and expiratory pressures. J Cardiopulm Rehabil. 2002 Jan-Feb; 22(1):53-7.

Eaton T, Young P, Zeng I, Kolbe J. A randomized evaluation of the acute efficacy, acceptability and tolerability of flutter and active cycle of breathing with and without postural drainage in noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Chron Respir Dis. 2007;4(1):23-30.

Figueiredo PH, Zin WA, Guimaraes FS. Flutter valve improves respiratory mechanics and sputum production in patients with bronchiectasis. Physiotherapy Research International 2012;17(1):12-20. (Flutter vs sham Flutter).

Gondor M, Nixon PA, Mutich R, Rebovich P, Orenstein DM. Comparison of Flutter device and chest physical therapy in the treatment of cystic fibrosis pulmonary exacerbation. Pediatr Pulmonol. 1999 Oct; 28(4):255- 60.

Guimaraes FS, Moco VJ, Menezes SL, Dias CM, salles RE, Lopes AJ. Effects of ELTGOL and Flutter VRP1 on the dynamic and static pulmonary volumes and on the secretion clearance of patients with bronchiectasis. Revista Brasileira de Fisioterapia 2012;16(2):108-13.

Homnick DN, Anderson K, Marks JH. Comparison of the flutter device to standard chest physiotherapy in hospitalized patients with cystic fibrosis: A pilot study. Chest. 1998 Oct; 114(4):993-7.

Konstan MW, Stern RC, Doershuk CF. Efficacy of the Flutter device for airway mucus clearance in patients with cystic fibrosis. J Pediatr 1994;124(5 Pt 1):689–693.

Lagerkvist A, Sten GM, Redfors SB, Lindblad AG, Hjalmarson O. Immediate changes in blood-gas tensions during chest physiotherapy with PEP and OscPEP in patients with CF. Resp Care 2006;51910):1154-1161.

Annemarie L Lee, Hannah C Williamson, Sarah Lorensin and Lissa M Spencer.     The effects of oscillating positive expiratory pressure therapy in adults with stable non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis: A systematic review. Chronic Respiratory Diseases 2015;12(1):36-46.

McCarren B, Alison JA. Physiological effects of vibration in subjects with CF. ERJ 2006;27:1204-1209.

McIlwaine PM, Wong LT, Peacock D, Davidson AG. Long-term comparative trial of positive expiratory pressure versus oscillating positive expiratory pressure (flutter) physiotherapy in the treatment of cystic fibrosis. J Pediatr. 2001 Jun; 38(6):845-50.

Morrison L, Agnew J. Oscillating devices for airway clearance in people with cystic fibrosis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.2009 (1):CD006842,

Murray MP, Pentland JL, Hill AT. A randomised crossover trial of chest physiotherapy in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Eur Respir J. 2009 Nov;34(5):1086-92.

Naraparaju S, Vaishali K, Venkatesan P, Acharya V. A comparison of the Acapella and a threshold inspiratory muscle trainer for sputum clearance in bronchiectasis – A pilot study. Physiotherapy Theory & Practice 2012;2696):353-7.

Newbold ME, Tullis E, Corey M, Ross B, Brooks D.  The flutter device versus the PEP mask in the treatment of adults with cystic fibrosis.  Physiotherapy Canada. 2005; 57(3):199-207.

Patterson JE, Bradley JM, Hewitt O, Bradbury I, Elborn S. Airway clearance in bronchiectasis: a randomized crossover trial of Active Cycle of Breathing Techniques versus Acapella. Respiration 2005;72(3):239-242.

Patterson JE, Hewitt O, kent L, Bradbury I, Elborn JS, Bradley JM. Acapella versus ‘usual airway clearance’ during acute exacerbation in bronchiectasis: a randomized crossover trial. Chronic respiratory Disease 2007;4(2):67-74.

Pryor JA, Webber BA, Hodson ME, et al. The Flutter VRP1 valve as an adjunct to chest physiotherapy in cystic fibrosis. Respir Med 1994;88:677–81.

Pryor JA, Tannenbaum E, Scott SF, Burgess J, Cramer D, Gyi K, Hodson ME. Beyond postural drainage and percussion: Airway clearance in people with cystic fibrosis. J Cystic Fibrosis 2010 9(3):187-192

Tambascio J, de Sousa LT, Lisboa RM, Passarelli RdeC, de Souza HC, Gastaldi AC.                           The influence of Flutter VRP1 components on mucus transport of patients with bronchiectasis. Respiratory Medicine 2011;105(9):1316-21.

Thompson C S, Harrison S, Ashley J, Day K and Smith D L. Randomised crossover study of the Flutter device and the active cycle of breathing technique in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Thorax 2002;57;446-448

Valente AM, Gastaldi AC, Cravo SL, Afonso JL, Sologuren MJJ, Guimaraes AC. The effect of two techniques on the characteristics and transport of sputum in patients with bronchiectasis: a pilot study. Physiotherapy 2004;90(3):158-64.

Van Winden CM, Visser A, Hop W, Sterk PJ, Beckers S, de Jongste JC. Effects of flutter and PEP mask physiotherapy on symptoms and lung function in children with cystic fibrosis. Eur Respir J. 1998 Jul; 12(1):143-7.

Volsko TA, DiFiore J, Chatburn RL. Performance comparison of two oscillating positive expiratory pressure devices: Acapella versus Flutter. Respir Care. 2003 Feb; 48(2):124-30.

West K, Wallen M, Follett J. Acapella vs. PEP mask therapy: a randomised trial in children with cystic fibrosis during respiratory exacerbation. Physiother Theory Pract. 2010;26(3):143-9.

Xiang-yu Zhang, Qixing Wang, Shouqin Zhang, Weilin Tan, Zheng Wang, Jue Li. The use of a modified, oscillating positive expiratory pressure device reduced fever and length of hospital stay in patients after thoracic and upper abdominal surgery: a randomised trial. J Physiotherapy 2015;61:16-20.

Outcome Measures

MMRC

Hsu KY, Lin JR, Lin MS, Chen W, Chen YJ, Yan YH 2013. The modified Medical Research Council dyspnoea scale is a good indicator of health-related quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Singapore Med J. Jun;54(6):321-7

Paediatrics

Acapella – Paediatrics

Mueller G,  Bersch-Porada  I, Koch-Borner  S, Raab AM,  Jonker  M,  Baumberger M ,  Michel F. Laboratory Evaluation of Four Different Devices for Secretion Mobilization: Acapella Choice, Green and Blue Versus Water Bottle. 2014. Respiratory Care 59(5):673–677

Volsko TA, DiFiore J, Chatburn RL. Performance comparison of two oscillating positive expiratory pressure devices: Acapella versus Flutter. Respir Care. 2003 Feb;48(2):124-30. PMID: 12556253 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Autogenic Drainage – Paediatrics

Davidson AGF, McIlwaine PM, Wong LTK, Nakielna EM, Pirie GE. Physiotherapy in cystic fibrosis, a comparative trial of positive expiratory pressure, autogenic drainage and conventional percussion and drainage techniques. Pediatric Pulmonology 1988, suppl. 132.

Giles, DR, Wagener, JS, Accurso FJ, Butler-Simon N. Short term effects of postural drainage versus autogenic drainage on oxygen saturation and sputum recovery in patients with cystic fibrosis. Chest 1995; 108:952-954.

Lannefors L, Button B, McIlwaine M. Physiotherapy in infants and young children with cystic fibrosis: current practice and future developments. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 2004;11:8-25

McIlwaine PM, Davidson AGF, Wong LTK, Pirie G. The effect of chest physiotherapy by postural drainage and autogenic drainage on oxygen saturation in cystic fibrosis. Pediatr Pulmonol 1991; Suppl 6, 291.

McIlwaine PM, Wong LTK, Pirie GE, Davidson AGF. Long-term comparative trial of conventional percussion and drainage physiotherapy versus autogenic drainage in cystic fibrosis. XIth International Cystic Fibrosis Congress 1992; Abstract 32 (Dublin).

Van Ginderdeuren F, Malfroot A,Dab I. Influence of “assisted autogenic drainage (AAD) “, “bouncing” and “AAD combined with bouncing” on gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) in infants. J Cystic Fibrosis 2001; Book of abstracts; p112.

Van Ginderdeuren F, Malfroot A, Verdonck J, et al. Influence of assisted autogenic drainage (AAD) and AAD combined with bouncing on gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) in infants under the age of 5 months. J Cystic Fibrosis 2003;2 (suppl1) : A251.

Bottle PEP – Paediatrics

Also see adult references for bottle PEP

Mueller G,  Bersch-Porada  I, Koch-Borner  S, Raab AM,  Jonker  M,  Baumberger M ,  Michel F. Laboratory Evaluation of Four Different Devices for Secretion Mobilization: Acapella Choice, Green an Andersen JB & Falk M., (1991), Chest physiotherapy in the Paediatric Age Group. Respiratory Care, 36, pp546-554d Blue Versus Water Bottle. 2014. Respiratory Care 59(5):673–677

Exercise – Paediatrics

Andreasson B, Jonsson B, Kornfalt R, Nordmark E, Sandstrom S. Long-term effects of physical exercise on working capacity and pulmonary function in cystic fibrosis. Acta Paediatr Scand,1987; 76: 70-75.

Bar-Or O. Home-based exercise programs in cystic fibrosis; Are they worth it? J Pediatr 2000;136:279-80. Blomquist M, Freyschuss U, Wiman LG, Strandvik B. Physical activity and self-treatment in patients with cystic fibrosis. Arch Dis Child 1986;61:362-7.

Blimkie, C (1993a) Resistance training during pre-adolescence: Issues and controversies. Sports Medicine, 15(6):389-407

Blimkie, C (1993b) “Benefits and risks of resistance training in children.” In Intensive Participation in Children’s Sports, Human Kinetic Publishers, Sth Australia.

Bradley, J. M., & Moran, F. (2008). Physical training for Cystic Fibrosis.

Elbasan, Bulent, Tunali, Nur, Duzgun, Irem, & Ozcelik, Ugur. (2012). Effects of chest physiotherapy and aerobic exercise training on physical fitness in young children with cystic fibrosis. Italian Journal Of Pediatrics, 38, 2-2.

Gruber W, Orenstein DM, Braumann KM, Hüls G. Health-related fitness and trainability in children with cystic fibrosis. Pediatr Pulmonol 2008;43(10):953-64.

Hebestreit, H., Kieser, S., Junge, S., Ballmann, M., Hebestreit, A., & Schindler, C. (2010). Long-term effects of a partially supervised conditioning programme in cystic fibrosis. European Respiratory Journal, 35(3), 578-583.

Hind K, Truscott JG, Conway SP. Exercise during childhood and adolescence: a prophylaxis against cystic fibrosis-related low bone mineral density? Exercise for bone health in children with cystic fibrosis. J Cyst Fibros 2008;7(4):270-6.

Keochkerian D, Mehdi C, Delanaud S, Gauthier R, Maingourd Y, Ahmaidi S. Breathing pattern adopted by children with cystic fibrosis with mild to moderate pulmonary impairment during exercise. Respiration 2008;75:170-7.

Lannefors L, Button BM, McIlwaine M. Physiotherapy in infants and young children with cystic fibrosis: current practice and future developments. J Royal Soc Med 2004; 97(Suppl 44):8-25.

Massery M. Musculoskeletal and neuromuscular interventions: a physical approach to cystic fibrosis. J R Soc Med 2005;98(Suppl. 45):55-66.

McIlwaine M. Chest physical therapy, breathing techniques and exercise in children with CF. Paediatr Respir Rev 2007;8:8-16.

Orenstein DM, Higgins LW. Update on the role of exercise in cystic fibrosis. Curr Opin Pulm Med 2005;11:519- 23.

Prasad SA, Cerny FJ. Factors that influence adherence to exercise and their effectiveness: application to cystic fibrosis. Pediatr Pulmonol 2002;34:66-72.

Selvadurai, H. C., Blimkie, C. J., Meyers, N., Mellis, C. M., Cooper, P. J., & Van Asperen, P. P. (2002). Randomized controlled study of in-hospital exercise training programs in children with cystic fibrosis. Pediatric pulmonology, 33(3), 194-200.

Flutter – Paediatrics

Bellone A, Lascioli R, Raschi S, Guzzi L, Adone R. Chest physical therapy in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis: effectiveness of three methods. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2000 May;81(5):558-60. PMID: 10807091 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Fink JB, Mahlmeister MJ. Highfrequency oscillation of the airway and chest wall. Respir Care. 2002 Jul;47(7):797-807. Review. PMID: 12088550 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Gondor M, Nixon PA, Mutich R, Rebovich P, Orenstein DM. Comparison of Flutter device and chest physical therapy in the treatment of cystic fibrosis pulmonary exacerbation.

Hess DR. The evidence for secretion clearance techniques. Respir Care. 2001 Nov;46(11):1276-93. Review. PMID: 11679147 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Homnick DN, Anderson K, Marks JH. Comparison of the flutter device to standard chest physiotherapy in hospitalized patients with cystic fibrosis: a pilot study. Chest. 1998 ct;114(4):993-7. PMID: 9792567 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

McCarren, B., & Alison, J. A. (2006). Physiological effects of vibration in subjects with cystic fibrosis. The European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology, 27(6), 1204-1209.

McIlwaine PM, Wong LT, Peacock D, Davidson AG. Long-term comparative trial of positive expiratory pressure versus oscillating positive expiratory pressure (flutter) physiotherapy in the treatment of cystic fibrosis. J Pediatr. 2001 Jun;138(6):845-50. PMID: 11391327 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Orlik T, Sands D. Long-term study of efficiencies of select physiotherapy methods used in the treatment of cystic fibrosis [abstract]. Proceedings of 24th European Cystic Fibrosis Conference; 2001 June 6-9; Vienna, Austria. 2001: P113.

Padman R, Geouque DM, Engelhardt MT. Effects of the flutter device on pulmonary function studies among pediatric cystic fibrosis patients. Del Med J. 1999 Jan;71(1):13-8. PMID: 10024754 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Pryor JA, Webber BA, Hodson ME, Warner JO. The Flutter VRP1 as an adjunct to chest physiotherapy in cystic fibrosis. Respir Med. 1994 Oct;88(9):677-81. PMID: 7809441 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE

Pryor JA Webber BA Physiotherapy Techniques in : Pryor JA, Prasad A(Eds) Physiotherapy for Respiratory and Cardiac Problems 3rd Edn. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh pp

195-196. 2002

Thompson CS, Harrison Day K, Smith DL. Randomised crossover study of the Flutter device

and the active cycle of breathing technique in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Thorax. 2002 May;57(5):446-8.

van Winden CM, Visser A, Hop W, Sterk PJ, Beckers S, de Jongste JC. Effects of flutter and PEP mask physiotherapy on symptoms and lung function in children with cystic fibrosis.

Volsko TA, DiFiore J, Chatburn RL. Performance comparison of two oscillating positive expiratory pressure devices: Acapella versus Flutter. Respir Care. 2003 Feb;48(2):124-30.

Forced Expiration Technique – Paediatrics

Badr C, Elkins MR, Ellis ER.  The effect of body position on maximal expiratory pressure and flow. 2002. Austr J of Physiotherapy 48 (2):95-102

Sutton PP, Parker RA, Webber BA, Newman SP, Garland N, Lopez- Vidriero MT, Pavia D, Clarke SW.

Assessment of the forced expiration technique, postural drainage and directed coughing in chest

physiotherapy. Eur J Respir Dis. 1983 Jan;64(1):62-8.

van Hengstum M, Festen J, Beurskens C, Hankel M, van den Broek W, Buijs W, Corstens F. The effect of positive expiratory pressure versus forced expiration technique on tracheobronchial clearance in chronic bronchitics. Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl. 1988;143:114-8.

van der Schans CP, Piers DA, Beekhuis H, Koeter GH, van der Mark TW, Postma DS. Effect of forced

expirations on mucus clearance in patients with chronic airflow obstruction: effect of lung recoil

pressure. Thorax. 1990 Aug;45(8):623-7.

van der Schans CP. Forced expiratory manoeuvres to increase transport of bronchial mucus: a mechanistic approach. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis. 1997 Aug;52(4):367-70.

Gravity Assisted Drainage – Paediatrics

Button BM, Heine RG, Catto-Smith AG, Olinsky A, Phelan PD, Ditchfield MR, Story I. Chest  physiotherapy in infants with cystic fibrosis: to tip or not? A five-year study. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2003 Mar;35(3):208-13.

Button BM. Related Articles, Links Postural drainage techniques and gastro-oesophageal reflux in infants with cystic fibrosis. Eur Respir J. 1999 Dec;14(6):1456; author reply 1456-7. No abstract available.

Button BM, Heine RG, Catto-Smith AG, Phelan PD. Postural drainage in cystic fibrosis: is there a link with gastro-oesophageal reflux? J Paediatr Child Health. 1998 Aug;34(4):330-4.

Button BM, Heine RG, Catto-Smith AG, Phelan PD, Olinsky A. Postural Physiotherapy Department, RCH Brisbane 4 Physiotherapy for Children with Chronic Respiratory Conditions, 2004. For Review 2006 drainage and gastro-oesophageal reflux in infants with cystic fibrosis. Arch Dis Child. 1997 Feb;76(2):148- 50.

Button BM, Heine RG, Catto-Smith AG, Phelan PD, Olinsky A, Storey I. A twelve month comparison of standard versus modified chest physiotherapy in twenty infants with cystic fibrosis. Peds Pulmonol. 1997:Suppl 14;Abst 338

Lannefors L, Wollmer P. Mucus clearance with three chest physiotherapy regimes in cystic fibrosis: a comparison between postural drainage, PEP and physical exercise. Eur Resp J. 1992 Jun;5(6):748-53.

Lupton-Smith AR, Argent AC,  Rimensberger  PC,. Morrow BM. Challenging a paradigm: Positional changes in ventilation distribution are highly variable in healthy infants and children. Paediatric Pulmo. 2014 August 49 (8):764-771

McIlwaine PM, Wong LT, Peacock D, Davidson AG. Long-term comparative trial of conventional postural drainage and percussion versus positive expiratory pressure physiotherapy in the treatment of cystic fibrosis. J Pediatr. 1997 Oct;131(4):570-4.

Oberwaldner B. Physiotherapy for airway clearance in paediatrics. Eur Respir J. 2000 Jan;15(1):196-204.

Oldenburg FA Jr, Dolovich MB, Montgomery JM, Newhouse MT. Effects of postural drainage, exercise, and cough on mucus clearance in chronic bronchitis. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1979 Oct;120(4):739-45.

Phillips GE, Pike SE, Rosenthal M, Bush A. Holding the baby: head downwards positioning for

physiotherapy does not cause gastrooesophageal reflux. Eur Respir J. 1998 Oct;12(4):954-7.

Intrapulmonary percussive ventilation – The Vest – Paediatrics

Braggion C, Cappelletti LM, Cornacchia M, et al. Short-term effects of three chest physiotherapy regimens in patients hospitalized for pulmonary exacerbations of cystic fibrosis: a cross-over randomized study. Pediatr Pulmonol. 1995;19:16-22.

Darbee, J. C., Kanga, J. F., & Ohtake, P. J. (2005). Physiologic evidence for high-frequency chest wall oscillation and positive expiratory pressure breathing in hospitalized subjects with cystic fibrosis. Physical Therapy, 85(12), 1278-1289.

Fink JB, Mahlmeister MJ. Highfrequency oscillation of the airway and chest wall. Respir Care. 2002 Jul;47(7):797-807. Review. PMID: 12088550 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Giarraffa, P., Berger, K. I., Chaikin, A. A., Axelrod, F. B., Davey, C., & Becker, B. (2005). Assessing efficacy of high-frequency chest wall oscillation in patients with familial dysautonomia. Chest, 128(5), 3377-3381.

Gross, D., & King, M. (1984). High frequency chest wall compression: A new non-invasive method of chest physiotherapy for mucociliary clearance. Physiotherapy Canada, 36(3), 137-139.

Hansen, L. G., & Warwick, W. J. (1990). High-frequency chest compression system to aid in clearance of mucus from the lung. Biomedical Instrumentation Technology, 24(4), 289-294. 2014 Physiotherapy Department 7

Jones,R.L., Lester,R.T., and Brown,N.E. (1995). Effects of high frequency chest compression on respiratory system mechanics in normal subjects and cystic fibrosis patients. Canadian Respiratory Journal, 2, 40-46

Kempainen, R. R., Milla, C., Dunitz, J., Savik, K., Hazelwood, A., Williams, C., et al. (2010). Comparison of settings used for high-frequency chest-wall compression in cystic fibrosis. Respiratory Care, 55(6), 695-701.

Lange, D. J., Lechtzin, N., Davey, C., David, W., Heiman-Patterson, T., Gelinas, D., et al. (2006). High-frequency chest wall oscillation in ALS: An exploratory randomized, controlled trial. Neurology, 67(6), 991-997.

McIllwaine Mp Alarie N, Davidson GF, Lands LC, Ratjen F, Milner R, Owen B, Agnew JL. Long-term multicentre randomised controlled study of high frequency chest wall oscillation versus positive expiratory pressure mask in cystic fibrosis. Thorax 2013 Aug 68 (8): 746-51

Newhouse PA, White F, Marks JH, Homnick DN. The intrapulmonary percussive ventilator and flutter device compared to standard chest physiotherapy in patients with cystic fibrosis. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 1998 Jul;37(7):427-32.

Nicolini A, Cardini F, Landucci N, Lantana S, Ferrari-Bravo M, & Barlascini C (2013). Effectiveness of treatment with high frequency chest wall oscillation in patients with bronchiectasis. BMC Pulmonary Medicine. 13, 21, 1-8.

Oermann, C. M., Swank, P. R., & Sockrider, M. M. (2000). Validation of an instrument measuring patient satisfaction with chest physiotherapy techniques in cystic fibrosis. Chest, 118(1), 92-97.

Oermann CM, Sockrider MM, Giles D, et al. Comparison of high-frequency chest wall oscillation and oscillating positive expiratory pressure in the home management of cystic fibrosis: a pilot study. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2001;32:372- 7.

Osman, L. P., Roughton, M., Hodson, M. E., & Pryor, J. A. (2010). Short-term comparative study of high frequency chest wall oscillation and european airway clearance techniques in patients with cystic fibrosis. Thorax, 65(3), 196-200.

Paneroni M, Clini E, Simonelli C, Bianchi L, Degli Antoni F, Vitacca M. Safety and efficacy of short-term intrapulmonary percussive ventilation in patients with bronchiectasis. Respiratory Care 2011;56(7):984-8.

Phillips GE, Pike SE, Jaffe A, et al. Comparison of active cycle of breathing and high-frequency oscillation jacket in children with cystic fibrosis. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2004;37:71-5.

Stites, S. W., Perry, G. V., Peddicord, T., Cox, G., McMillan, C., & Becker, B. (2006). Effect of high-frequency chest wall oscillation on the central and peripheral distribution of aerosolized diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid as compared to standard chest physiotherapy in cystic fibrosis. Chest, 129(3), 712-717.

Willis, L. D., & Warren, R. H. (2007). Acute hypoxemia in a child with neurologic impairment associated with high-frequency chest-wall compression. Respiratory Care, 52(8), 1027-1029.

Manual techniques – Paediatrics

Andersen JB & Falk M., (1991), Chest physiotherapy in the Paediatric Age Group. Respiratory Care, 36, pp546-554

Boyd, S, Brooks D, Agnew-Coughlin J, Ashwell J. Evaluation of the Literature on the Effectiveness of Physical Therapy Modalities in the Management of Children with Cystic Fibrosis. Paediatric Physical Therapy 1994; 6(2):70-74.

Cross, J., Elender, F., Barton, G., Clark, A., Shepstone, L., Blyth, A., . . . Harvey, I. (2010). A randomised controlled equivalence trial to determine the effectiveness and cost-utility of manual chest physiotherapy techniques in the management of exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (MATREX). Health Technology Assessment, 14(23), 1. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3310/hta14230

McIlwaine, P. M., Wong, L. T., Peacock, D., & Davidson, A. G. (1997). Long-term comparative trial of conventional postural drainage and percussion versus positive expiratory pressure physiotherapy in the treatment of cystic fibrosis. J Pediatr, 131(4), 570-574.

Stiller, K., Geake, T., Taylor, J., Grant, R., & Hall, B. (1990). Acute lobar atelectasis: a comparison of two chest physiotherapy regimens. CHEST, 98(6), 1336-1340.

van der Schans, C. P., Postma, D. S., Koeter, G. H., & Rubin, B. K. (1999). Physiotherapy and bronchial mucus transport. European Respiratory Journal, 13, 1477-1486.

Mask PEP – Paediatrics

Christensen EF, Nedergaard T, Dahl R.Long-term treatment of chronic bronchitis with positive  expiratory pressure mask and chest physiotherapy. Chest. 1990 Mar; 97(3): 645-50. PMID: 2106412 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Costantini.D, Brivio A., Brusa D., Delfino R., Fredella C., Russo M.C. , Sguera A. PEP-MASK VERSUS POSTURAL DRAINAGE IN CF INFANTS A LONGTERM COMPARATIVE TRIAL CF Center, Pediatric Department – University of Milan-Italy Papers on Physiotherapy 24th ECFC, Vienna 2001 http://www.ecfsoc.org/Vienna/abstracts/P1 00.htm

Elkins, M., Jones, A. & van der Schans, C. P. (2006). Positive expiratory pressure physiotherapy for airway clearance in people with cystic fibrosis (Review). The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006, 2.

McIlwaine PM, Wong LT, Peacock D, Davidson AG. Long-term comparative trial of conventional postural drainage and percussion versus positive expiratory pressure physiotherapy in the treatment of cystic fibrosis. J Pediatr. 1997 Oct;131(4):570-4. PMID: 9386661 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Olseni L, Midgren B, Hornblad Y, Wollmer P. Chest physiotherapy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: forced expiratory technique combined with either postural drainage or positive expiratory

pressure breathing. Respir Med. 1994 Jul; 88(6): 435-40.

Positive Expiratory Pressure – PEP

AARC Clinical Practice Guideline: Use of Positive Airway Pressure Adjuncts to Bronchial Hygiene Therapy Respiratory Care. Respir Care. 1993; 38: 516-521.

Christensen EF, Dahl R. Treatment of chronic bronchitis with terbutaline inhaled from a cone spacer with and without positive expiratory pressure. Lung 1991;169(6):325-33.

Christensen EF, Nedergard T, Dahl R. Long-term treatment of chronic bronchitis with positive expiratory pressure mask and chest physiotherapy. Chest 1990;97(3):645-50.

Darbee JC, Kanga JF, Ohtake PJ. Physiologic evidence for HFCWO & PEP breathing in hospitalized subjects with CF. Physical Therapy 2005;85:1278-1289

Darbee JC, Ohtake PJ, Grant BJ et al. Physiologic evidence for the efficacy of positive expiratory pressure as an airway clearance technique in patients with cystic fibrosis. Phys Ther 2004;84:524-37.

Elkins M, Jones A, van der Schans C. Positive expiratory pressure physiotherapy for airway clearance in people with cystic fibrosis. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006, Issue 2. CD003147.

Hofmeyr JL, Webber BA, Hodson ME. Evaluation of Positive Expiratory Pressure as an Adjunct to Chest Physiotherapy in the Treatment of Cystic Fibrosis. Thorax 41; 951 954, 1986.

Falk M, Kelstrup M, Andersen JB et al.  Improving the Ketchup Bottle Method with Positive Expiratory Pressure, PEP, in Cystic Fibrosis.  Eur J Respir Dis. 1984; 65:423-432.

Groth S, Stavanger G, Dirksen H, Andersen JB, Falk M, Kelstrup M. Positive Expiratory Pressure (PEP-mask) Physiotherapy improves Ventilation and reduces Volume of Trapped Gas in Cystic Fibrosis. Clin Respir Physiol 1985;21:339-343.

Lannefors L, Eriksson L. Positive Expiratory Pressure (PEP). In: McIlwaine M, Van Ginderdeuren F, Eds. Physiotherapy for people with Cystic Fibrosis throughout life: International Physiotherapy Group/Cystic Fibrosis 2009: 12-13.)

Lannefors L, Button BM, McIlwaine M. Physiotherapy in infants and young children with cystic fibrosis: current practice and future developments. J of the Royal Society of Medicine 2004; Suppl 44: Vol 97: 8-24.

Lannefors L, Wollmer P. Mucus Clearance with Three Chest Physiotherapy Regimens in Cystic Fibrosis: a Comparison between Postural Drainage, PEP and Physical Exercise. Eur Resp J 1992;5:748-753.

Lee AL, Denehy L, Wilson JW, Stirling RG, Heine RG, Button BM. Upright positive expiratory pressure therapy and exercise: effects on gastroesophageal reflux in COPD and bronchiectasis. Respiratory Care 2012;57(9):1460-7.

McIlwaine PM, Wong LT, Peacock D, Davidson AG. Long-term comparative trial of conventional postural drainage and percussion versus positive expiratory pressure physiotherapy in the treatment of cystic fibrosis. J Pediatr. 1997 Oct; 131(4): 570-4.

McIlwaine PM, Wong LT, Peacock D, Davidson AG. Long-term comparative trial of positive expiratory pressure versus oscillating positive expiratory pressure (flutter) physiotherapy in the treatment of cystic fibrosis. J Pediatr. 2001 Jun; 138(6): 845-50.

McIlwaine PM, Alarie N, Davidson GF, Lands LC, Ratjen F, Milner R, Owen B, Agnew JL. Long-term multicentre randomised controlled study of HFCWO vs PEP mask in CF. Thorax Online. First published February 13,2013 as 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2012-202915.

McIlwaine MP; Alarie N; Davidson GF; Lands LC; Ratjen F; Milner R; Owen B; Agnew JL. Long-term multicentre randomised controlled study of high frequency chest wall oscillation versus positive expiratory pressure mask in cystic fibrosis. Thorax 2013; 68(8):746-51, 2013

McIlwaine M, Button B, Dwan K. Positive expiratory pressure for airway clearance in people with cystic fibrosis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006, Issue 2. Art. No:CD003147.DOI:10.1002/1465 1858.CD003147.pub3. 2015.

McIlwaine M, Button B, Dwan KPositive expiratory pressure physiotherapy for airway clearance in people with cystic fibrosis (Review). The Cochrane Collaboration. The Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 6.

Mortensen J, Falk M, Groth S, Jensen C. The Effects of Postural Drainage and Positive Expiratory Pressure Physiotherapy on Tracheobronchial Clearance in Cystic Fibrosis. Chest 1991;100:1350-1357.

Newbold M, Tullis E, Corey M, Ross B, Brooks D. The flutter device versus the PEP mask in the treatment of adults with cystic fibrosis. Physiotherapy Canada. 2005; 57(3): 199-207.

Nicolini A; Merliak F; Barlascini C. Use of positive expiratory pressure during six minute walk test: results in patients with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Osadnik CR; McDonald CF; Miller BR; Hill CJ; Tarrant B; Steward R; Chao C; Stodden N; Oliveira CC; Gagliardi N; Holland AE.  The effect of positive expiratory pressure (PEP) therapy on symptoms, quality of life and incidence of re-exacerbation in patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Thorax 2014; 69(2):137-43.

Pryor JA, Tannenbaum E, Scott SF, Burgess J Cramer D, Gyi K, Hodson ME.    Beyond postural drainage and percussion: Airway clearance in people with cystic fibrosis. Journal of Cystic Fibrosis. 9(3): 187-92, 2010 May.

Pryor JA, Webber BA, Hodson ME, Warner JO. The Flutter VRP1 as an Adjunct to Chest Physiotherapy in Cystic Fibrosis. Respiratory Medicine 88; 677 681, 1994.

Sirithangkul S, Ranganathan S, Robinson PJ, Robertson CF. Positive expiratory pressure to enhance cough effectiveness in tracheomalacia. J Med Assoc Thai. 2010 Nov;93 Suppl 6:S112-8.

Steen IU, Redmond AOB, O´Neill D, Beattie F. Evaluation of the PEP Mask in Cystic Fibrosis. Acta Paediatr Scand 1991;80:51-56.

TØnnesen P, StØvring S.  Positive Expiratory Pressure (PEP) as Lung Physiotherapy in Cystic Fibrosis.  Eur J Respir Dis. 1984; 65:419-422.

Van Asperen PP, Jackson I, Hennesey P, Brown J. Comparison of Positive Expiratory Pressure (PEP) Mask with Postural Drainage in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis. Aust Paed J 1987;23:283-284.

van Hengstum M, Festen J, Beurskens C, Hankel M, Beekman F, Corstens F. Effect of positive expiratory pressure mask physiotherapy (PEP) versus forced expiration technique (FET/PD) on regional lung clearance in chronic bronchitics..

Van Winden CM, Visser A, Hop W, Sterk PJ, Beckers S, de Jongste JC. Effects of flutter and PEP mask physiotherapy on symptoms and lung function in children with cystic fibrosis. Eur Respir J. 1998 Jul; 12(1):143-7

West K, Wallen M, Follett J. Acapella vs. PEP mask therapy: a randomised trial in children with cystic fibrosis during respiratory exacerbation. Physiother Theory Pract. 2010;26(3):143-9.

High pressure PEP – HiPEP

Oberwaldner B, Evans JC, Zach MS. Forced expirations against a variable resistance: a new chest physiotherapy method in cystic fibrosis. Paed Pulm 1986 : 2: 358-367

Oberwaldner B,Theissl B, rucker A, Zach MS. Chest physiotherapy in hospitalized patients with cystic fibrsosis; a study of lung function effects and sputum production. Eur Respir J 1991 ;4: 152-158

Oberwaldner B. Hi-PEP. In: McIlwaine M, Van Ginderdeuren F, Eds. Physiotherapy for people with Cystic Fibrosis throughout life: International Physiotherapy Group/Cystic Fibrosis 2009:14-16

Pfleger A, Theissl B, Oberwaldner B, Zach MS 1992 Self-administered chest physiotherapy in cystic fibrosis; a comparative study of high pressure PEP and autogenic drainage. Lung;170: 323-330

Zach MS, Oberwaldner B 1992 Effect of positive expiratory pressure breathing in patients with cystic fibrsosis. Thorax; 47: 66

Zach MS, Oberwaldner B. Chest physiotherapy. In:Taussig L, Landau L, eds. Textbook of Pediatric Respiratory Medicine. St.Louis, Mosby Inc, 1999, pp 299-311.

 

Sinusitis

Angrill J, Agusti C, de Celis R, Rano A, Gonzalez J, Sole T (2002) Bacterial colonisation in patients with bronchiectasis: micr

Ansari NN, Fathali M, Naghdi S, Hasson S, Jalaie S, Rastak MS. A randomised, double-blind clinical trial comparing the effects of continuous and pulsed ultrasound in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Physiotherapy Theory and Practice 2012: 28(2): 85-94. obiological pattern and risk factors. Thorax 57: 15-19.

Antunes M, Cohen N (2007) Mucociliary clearance – a critical upper airway host defense mechanism and methods of assessment. Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology 7: 5-10.

Benninger M, Ferguson B, Hadley J (2003) Adult chronic rhinosinusitis: definitions, diagnosis, epidemiology and pathophysiology. Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery 129: S1-32.

Cheng Y, Decker P, O’Byrne M (2006) Clinical and laboratory characteristics of 75 patients with specific polysaccharide antibody deficiency syndrome. Annals of Alergy Asthma and Immunology 97: 306-311.

Durr D, Desrosiers M, Dassa C (1999) Quality of life in patients with rhinosinusitis. Journal of Otolaryngology 28: 108-111.

Fokkens W, Lund V, Mullol J (2007) European Position paper on rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps group. Rhinology Supplement.

Guilemany J, Alobid I, Angrill J, Ballestreros F, Bernal-Sprekelsen M, Picado C, Mullol J (2006) The impact of bronchiectasis associated to sinonasal disease on quality of life. Respiratory Medicine 100: 1997-2003.

Guilemany J, Angrill J, Alobid I, Centellas S, Pujols L, Bartra J, Bernal-Sprekelsen M, Valero A, Picardo C, Mullol J (2009a) United airways again: high prevalence of rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps in bronchiectasis. Allergy 64: 790-797.

Guilemany J, Angrill K, Alobid I, Centellas S, Prades E, Roca J, Pujols L, Bernal-Sprekelsen M, Picado C, Mullol J (2009b) United airways: the impact of chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps in bronchiectasic patient’s quality of life. Allergy 64: 1524-1529.

Høsøien E, Lund AB, Vasseljen O (2010) Similar effect of therapeutic ultrasound and antibiotics for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis: a randomised trial. Journal of Physiotherapy 56: 27–32

Lanza D, Kennedy D (1997) Adult rhinosinusitis defined. Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery 117: S1-S7.

Lund V, Mackay I (1993) Staging in rhinosinusitis. Rhinology 31: 183-184.

Nathan R, Santilli J, Rockwell W, Glassheim J (2004) Effectiveness of immunotherapy for recurring sinusitis  associated with allergic rhinitis as assessed by the Sinusitis Outcomes Questionnaire. Annals of Allergy and Asthma Immunology 92: 668-672.

Piccirillo J, Merritt M, Richards M (2002) Psychometric and clinimetric validity of the 20-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-20). Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery 126: 41-47.

Young D, Morton R, Bartley J. Therapeutic ultrasound as treatment for chronic rhinosinusitis: preliminary observations. J Laryngol Otol. 2010 May;124(5):495-9

Sleep

Gao Y et al (2014)Sleep disturbances and health related quality of life in adults with steady-state bronchiectasis. 2014 Jul 18;9(7):e102970. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102970. eCollection

Travel

Managing passengers with stable respiratory disease planning air travel: British Thoracic Society recommendations. British Thoracic Society Air Travel Working Group. Thorax. Sept 2011:Vol 66; Supp

Winfried Möller, Karl Häußinger, Löms Ziegler-Heitbrock and Joachim Heyder 2006.Mucociliary and long-term particle clearance in airways of patients with immotile cilia. Respiratory Research 7:10  doi:10.1186/1465-9921-7-10

Urinary Incontinence

Browne WJ, Wood CJ, Desai M, Weller PH. Urinary incontinence in 9-16 year olds with cystic fibrosis compared to other respiratory conditions and a normal group. J Cyst Fibros. 2009 Jan;8(1):50-7

Button BM, Sherburn M, Chase J, McLachlan Z, Wilson J, Kotsimbos T. Incontinence (urinary and bowel) in women with cystic fibrosis compared to COPD and controls: prevalence, severity and bother. Pediatric Pulmonology 2004 Suppl 27,A359.

Button BM, Sherburn M, Chase J, Stillman B, Wilson J. Pelvic Floor Muscle Function in Women with Chronic Lung Disease (Cystic Fibrosis and COPD) versus controls: Relationship to Urinary Incontinence. Pediatric Pulmonology 2005; Suppl 28, A368.

Button BM, Sherburn M, Chase J, Stillman B, Wilson J. Effect of a Three Months Physiotherapeutic Intervention on Incontinence in Women with Chronic Cough Related to Cystic Fibrosis and COPD. Pediatric Pulmonology 2005; Suppl 28, A369.

Button BM, Burge A, SherburnM et al. Prevalence and impact of urinary incontinence in adult men with CF. Pediatric Pulmonology 2011;Suppl.34:356.

Burge AT, Holland AE, Sherburn M, Wilson J, Cox NS, Rasekaba TM, McAleer R, Morton JM, Button BM. Prevalence and impact of urinary incontinence in men with cystic fibrosis. Physiotherapy 2015;101(2):166-70.

Chiarelli P, Brown W, McElduff P. (1999) Leaking Urine: Prevalence and Associated Factors in Australian Women. Neururology and Urodynamics 18:567-577.

Cornacchia M, Zenorini A, Perobelli S, Zanolla L, Mastella G, Braggion C. Prevalence of urinary incontinence in women with cystic fibrosis. BJU Int.2001 Jul;88(1):44-8.

Gumery L, Hodgson G. Humphries N, Sheldon J, Stableforth D. Mackenzie W, Honeybourne D, Hawkins G. The prevalence of urinary incontinence in the adult male population of a regional cystic fibrosis centre. J of Cyst Fibros  2002;Vol.1 Suppl.1:351A.

McVean RJ, Orr A, Webb AK, Bradbury A, Kay L, Philips E, Dodd ME. Treatment of urinary incontinence in cystic fibrosis.J Cyst Fibros. 2003 Dec;2(4):171-6.

Miller JH, Ashton-Miller JA, deLancey JOL. A pelvic muscle pre-contraction can reduce cough-related urine loss in selected women with mild stress urinary incontinence. J Am Geriatr Soc 1998;46:870-874.

Moran F, Bradley JM, Boyle L, Elborn JS (2003) Incontinence in adult females with Cystic Fibrosis: a Northern Ireland survey. IJCP vol 57: no 3 182

Nankivell G, Caldwell P, Follett J. Urinary incontinence in adolescents with cystic fibrosis. Paediatric Pulmonary Reviews 2010; 11(2): 95-99.

Nixon GM, Glazner JA, Martin JM, Sawyer SM. (2002) Urinary incontinence in adolescent females with Cystic Fibrosis. Pediatrics. 110( 2 Pt1): e22

Orr A, MvVean R, Webb AK, Dodd ME (2001) Questionnaire survey of urinary incontinence in women with Cystic Fibrosis. BMJ Vol 322: 1521.

Prasad SA, Balfour-Lynn IM, Carr SB, Madge SL. A comparison of the prevalence of urinary incontinence in girls with cystic fibrosis, asthma and healthy controls. Pediatr Pulmonol 2006; Nov 41(11):1065-8.

Prys-Picard C, Niven R. Urinary incontinence in patients with bronchiectasis. European Respiratory Journal 27(4): 866-867.

Rees J, Tedd H, De Soyza A. Managing urinary incontinence in adults with bronchiectasis. British Journal of Nursing 2013; 22(9): S15-19.

Sapsford R, Richardson CA, Stanton WR. Sitting posture affects pelvic floor muscle activity in parous women: An observational study. AJP 2006;52(3):219-222.

Thomas TM, Plymat KR, Blannin J, Meade TW. (1980) Prevalence of urinary incontinence. BMJ 281: 1243-1245.

Vella M, Cartwright R, Cardozo L, Parsons M, Madge S, Burns Y. Prevalence of incontinence and incontinence-specific quality of life impairment in women with cystic fibrosis. Neurourol Urodyn. 2009;28(8):986-9

White D, Stiller K, Roney F. (2000)  The prevalence and severity of symptoms of incontinence in adult cystic fibrosis patients. Physiotherapy Theory and Practice 16:35-42.